1.a) Fundamental forces and philosophical principles
Before describing fundamental forces of matter in Global Physics, let us concisely present the philosophical principles of Global Astrophysics.
These principles are in addition to those more general principles mentioned in the page on Physics Principles of the book Global Mechanics. Likewise, we understand both space and time as conceptual variables of an absolute nature.
These philosophical principles will be the following:
There is a Universe without known limits, both at the smallest and largest scale.
Concept of elasticity implies existence of internal parts with different forces or energies within an object; these parts must also have elasticity. This argument, recursively applied, provides us with intuitive concept of an infinite Universe towards the infinitely small.
Regarding the extent of the Universe, we do not know its limits. The only thing that seems to be clear is that there was a great explosion, which affected the part of the Universe in which we live –or local Universe. There is no reason to think that before this great explosion, there was nothing, or that beyond our local Universe there is not more of the same.
The concept of an origin of the Universe from nothing, or a super-quantum singularity, does not make sense.
The Big Bang Theory as origin of the entire Universe seems to us to be a mixture of science and religion –or scientific creationism. What’s more, that something was to come out of nothing does not seem to us to be scientific at all!
Assumption of a non-origin or end of the Universe leads us to search for alternatives with more or less cyclical processes at a very large scale.
The advantage of these two new principles, whether they are correct or not, is that they place the brain in a scientific perspective –an aspect that seems to be lacking lately in Theoretical Physics.
The Principle of Global Conservation represents both the above ideas. There will be a relation of transformation and equivalence both between the microscopic and the macroscopic as well as between two moments in a closed system. Logically, the entire Universe is a closed system by definition
Going back to the topic of fundamental forces of matter, please note that Modern Physics knows about only the last five forces mentioned in the previous section –and in a rather superficial and confusing way.
Modern Physics sees gravitational field as a purely mathematical field and sees electromagnetic energy as nothing travelling through nothingness. Meanwhile, Quantum Mechanics is attempting to discover what forces of reversible deformation and retention are; that is to say, Higgs boson yes and Higgs boson no. At any rate, let us hope that incompatibility of the Theory of Relativity with Quantum Mechanics is resolved.
Regardless, the essence is to analyze dynamic equilibrium produced between all fundamental forces, and the importance of each of them about spatial and temporal scales and its particular conditions.
Global Physics defines fundamental forces of nature as properties of the unbreakable reticular structure of matter –global, gravitational or kinetic aether. Given the non-existence of global aether in Modern Physics, besides of its three fundamental forces –or four if one considers electromagnetic energy and the weak nuclear force separately– new fundamental forces appear related to the mechanical properties of the global aether and its movement.
Let us now review the ideas given in the book on Global Mechanics and look at a few considerations regarding main elastic characteristics of global aether or fundamental forces of matter:
Longitudinal tension of the filaments
We have barely mentioned this fundamental force of matter in the previous books, as they were in reference to known forces such as gravity, electromagnetism or mass creation.
However, in Astrophysics it can play a very important role. If creation of mass of the atoms, particles and black holes produces a local compression of the global aether, this will provoke a stretching of the filaments in order to cover the same surrounding space.
Moreover, the stars with their mass loss and emission of electromagnetic energy can cause expansion of the global aether.
These processes of expansion and contraction of the global aether could explain effect of gravitational lenses without apparent mass and same angular speed of rotation of the stars.
Displacement of the global aether (Movement of Longitudinal tension - Drag effect on mass)
As has been discussed, the mechanisms of formation of mass –or black interaction– and its destruction –white interaction– will produce variations in longitudinal tension.
Change in longitudinal tension of the filaments of global aether will provoke a tendency at a large scale to balance longitudinal tension, as in any other elastic web, via displacements of itself.
These displacements o the global aether may correspond to newly discovered gravitational waves.
On the other hand, not only white and black interactions produce a lengthening or shortening of the filaments of global aether, but also emission or absorption of electromagnetic energy.
Tension of the longitudinal curvature of global aether filaments (gravity f ield)
This tension is responsible for the gravitational field and gravitational interaction. See the page Gravity as a phase of matter of the book Global Mechanics and the book Global Gravity Law.
Global Mechanics maintains that electromagnetic energy essential configuration is transversal waves on tension of the longitudinal curvature of global aether filaments, which are a non-dispersive medium. Consequently, if said tension changes, the speed of light will adjust.
Similarly, the Plank Constant and Newton’s Universal Gravitation Constant could also alter.
For example, it would seem that if the filaments or strings are tenser, the gravitational force due to tension of the longitudinal curvature should be greater for same distance. However, perhaps greater tension could balance with internal and external forces of the protons and neutrons with a smaller size. Therefore, force of gravitation or tension of the longitudinal curvature could not change for a given distance. Thus, there could be greater longitudinal tension but less curvature of the filaments.
Too big conjecture! Only good and real experiments will illuminate us.
Movement of the tension of longitudinal curvature (Drag effect on electromagnetic energy)
One must distinguish between movement of the global aether and movement of tension of its longitudinal curvature. In fact, the physical support of electromagnetic energy is not global aether but the gravitational field –luminiferous aether.
A simple example will explain this concept. Earth’s gravitational field or tension of said longitudinal curvature would accompany the Earth in its trajectory around the Sun, while the global aether will not follow its displacement.
Gravitational field, in addition to generating force of gravity, has –if it is moving– drag effects on electromagnetic energy.
Another intuitive example of drag effect on waves could be when sound waves travel on top of electromagnetic waves.
Transversal tension of global aether filaments (Electromagnetic field)
Spatial distribution of filaments of the global aether with transversal tension implies existence of electromagnetic field.
Changes in transversal tension of global aether filaments (Electromagnetic energy)
This fundamental force of matter is the well-known electromagnetic energy; however, it becomes complex when it is confused with electromagnetic field, as presence of photons or electrons is not necessary for its existence. In fact, inverse causality gives rise to creation of the electrons, as explained in the pages on theory of the atom in the book Global Mechanics.
In any case, it is also true that photons and accelerated electrons produce an electromagnetic field. Photons, because of their transversal wave nature, and accelerated electrons because they are half a fold in the global aether with a minimum energy level below which they do not reverse, and they provoke alterations in spatial configuration of global aether.
Tension of deformation or reversible compression of global aether (Creation of mass – White and black interactions)
The book Global Mechanics explains the mechanisms of formation of particles with physical mass –or black interaction– such as transformation of transversal tension of the filaments of global aether into tension of longitudinal curvature and into tension of deformation or reversible compression of global aether.
This interaction will provoke a shrinking of the global aether due to compression or compaction of electromagnetic energy.
The opposite mechanism –or white interaction– will produce an elongation of the global aether and will liberate once again electromagnetic energy.
This is therefore a manifestation of the well-known equivalence between energy and mass. This fundamental force will include any particle with mass, like electrons or nucleons.
Within reversible deformation or compression of global aether we may include, where appropriate, the longitudinal folds.
Forces of retention caused by the cells or reticules of the global aether (Nuclear forces and confinement or asymptotic liberty)
As is stated in the book Global Mechanics, the main idea is that strong nuclear force is composed of two balanced opposite forces, the internal and external strong forces.
Elasticity of the filaments in the three-dimensional reticule causes external strong force –confinement force.
The internal strong force will be the tendency of the curls of global aether to become undone.
A special novelty of Global Physics is integration of kinetic energy in fundamental forces regarding mass.
It is probable other fundamental forces will appear, as other characteristics of matter appear, such as certain physical limits of abovementioned forces and processes involved.
Likewise, the very knowledge of the physical processes and their equivalences unifies the fundamental forces; the Global Physics does this when it unifies all forces in one single field of a material nature via their several elastic properties.