1.d) Astronomy and other phenomena in outer space
As well as processes of contraction and expansion of space of previous sections, other physical phenomena have great repercussions on the structure of the Universe.
There are two phenomena not discussed up until now. These are the equal spin velocities of the stars in certain galaxies and some effects of gravitational lensing, that only the existence of a large quantity of mass could explain them but this mass persist without detection.
Consequently, in order to explain both cases scientists consider the possible existence of dark matter.
In this case, model of Global Astrophysics –part of the Global Physics– attempts to contribute new ideas to explain dark matter in the Universe and strange behavior of faraway stars in rotation of the galaxies.
We must keep in mind that Astrophysics is a very imaginative science; not only in its interpretations of certain observations, but also because of limitations of observations.
What’s more, Modern Astrophysics remains stuck in its metaphysical doubts and questions; on the one hand, its main theory is Einstein’s General Relativity; but on the other, it seems evident “vacuum” is not actually empty, and that it has mechanical properties.
In addition to gravitational lensing effect without mass, and to problem of rotation of the stars in galaxies, we are going to discuss briefly the topic of antimatter, related to dark matter.
Furthermore, as a novel consequence of second element of the atractis causa –Merlin effect– in the Global Gravity Law, we will study possible additional eccentricity of planetary orbits with respect to classical and relativistic orbits.
Throughout this book, we have mentioned on numerous occasions there are two types of electromagnetic energy and physical mass, depending on the transversal rotation they possess.
In a three-dimensional Euclidean space –advocated by Global Physics–, there can only be two types of rotation in direction of propagation of a transversal wave. Consequently, electromagnetic energy can only be right-handed or left-handed.
Similarly, given definition of physical mass in Global Mechanics, there will be two types of mass –matter and antimatter– formed by a confluence of right-handed and left-handed electromagnetic energy, respectively. Thus, normal mass in our galaxy configures matter and antimatter will have opposite spin.
As would be expected, the lifetime of antimatter on our planet is very short; it is very unstable because opposite electromagnetic tension is all over around.
Maintaining particles of antimatter is a very costly process, as they need very strong electromagnetic fields of correct spin. Theoretically, a proton of antimatter, if adequately isolated from normal matter, should be just as stable as a normal proton.
Again, whole description of antimatter fits perfectly with concept of mass in Global Mechanics.
In a hypothetical initial situation of the Universe without any electromagnetic torsion or any sort of matter or antimatter, any rotation or torsion of the reticular structure of matter –global, gravitational or kinetic aether– will produce right-handed electromagnetic waves in one sense and left-handed waves in opposite sense within same direction.
Just as magnetic monopoles do not exist unless there is a fundamental asymmetry at level of elastic properties of the filaments of global aether. Due to the mechanisms that create mass and to Law of Large Numbers, We would say there should be an equal quantity of dark matter and normal matter –matter visible to us– in the Universe as a whole.
Recently, there has been talk about the possible existence of magnetic monopoles; however, this is most likely just a figure of speech, as the absent pole is probably at an inferior level. That is to say, its magnetism will end directly in the global aether, without detection by current technology.
Matter would be predominant in some regions of outer space, and antimatter in others.
The book Physics and Global Dynamics analyzes gravitational lensing provoked by large masses. Gravitational potential energy produces curvature of light and Merlin effect doubles the effect of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation for both kinetic and electromagnetic energy.
Given the mass required to produce this effect is not visible, there are various opinions regarding whether it is made of antimatter or normal matter. Gravitational field is independent from right-handed or left-handed nature of mass; thus, same curvature of light would appear in both cases.
When there is not enough mass or we do not detect it, dark matter provides and additional explanation for effects of gravitational interaction on the trajectory of light.
Other explanations could be existence of many black holes or weird particles with mass, like WIMPS.
However, we consider these options are very unlikely, due to the spatial distribution they should have.
Now, let us see the most likely cause of this strange phenomenon from point of view of Global Physics.
Global Astrophysics and gravitational lensing without mass
Of course, if we are going to speculate, the most probable cause for gravitational lensing could be simply the result of variations in longitudinal tension of the global aether, variations in its spatial configuration at a large scale, or even phenomena of drag of light due to displacements of luminiferous aether –gravitational field.
Surely luminiferous aether is not only gravity field –tension of longitudinal curvature of the global aether– but also the longitudinal tension itself.
Intergalactic dark energy will have a non-uniform distribution due to the mechanisms seen in the previous subsection 1.c.2.b) Dark Energy in Global Physics.
Following those mechanisms, dark energy will appear in regions where there is a large concentration of stars, in other words, in the galaxies.
In addition to said non-uniformity. Other curious effects will take place in intergalactic space due to existence of black holes in the galaxies and to different distribution of its stars.
Let us assume a region of three-dimensional space surrounded by 20 more or less distant galaxies. All these galaxies will produce an expansion of the global aether; thus, longitudinal tension of the filaments of global aether will be smaller in this region, until the galaxies separate due to the tendency said tension has towards equilibrium.
These adjustment processes will happen throughout every section of the local Universe, resulting in its expansion. However, along the whole process will be irregularities in the longitudinal tension of the filaments, and these will have an effect on gravity, intergalactic electromagnetic fields and gravitational lensing.
The irregularities will occur at different scales, not only in intergalactic space but also in clusters of galaxies and in superstructures of clusters.
According Modern Physics, presence of mass not directly detected could also provoke equal velocity of rotation of the stars –equal angular velocity of faraway stars in some galaxies. Thus, the name of this mass is dark matter.
There has also been an attempt to explain the abovementioned natural phenomenon of the rotation of galaxies alternatively, with a minimum intensity of gravitational field.
Global Astrophysics proposes a possible solution to explain observations within its physical model, based on contraction or expansion of the global aether.
Theories related to rotation of the galaxies are:
MOND –Modified Newtonian Dynamics– is a proposal of modified gravity called, put forward by Mordehai Milgrom in 1981 as a modification of Newton’s Second Law or Fundamental Law of Dynamics –Wikipedia.
The most important criticism made to this proposal of modified gravity or MOND is to be an ad hoc theory.
Another important criticism is to be a mathematical modification of Newton’s Second Law without providing a physical justification for it.
Dark matter and rotation of galaxies
In theory, without the gravitational minimum, only existence of a large quantity of dark matter would maintain angular velocity of faraway stars in spiral galaxies. According to Wikipedia, dark matter comprises up to 90% of the total matter in most galaxies.
It seems that, in addition to a large amount of dark matter, a strange distribution of it is required in order to achieve a uniform rotation in the entire galaxy.
When physicists say NASA has confirmed existence of dark matter as a halo in galaxies, what it means –or they should say to the public– is measurements obtained of angular velocity of the stars would require existence of dark matter in order to be coherent with current gravitational model. Of course, this is all assuming it is in fact a gravitational effect of dark matter.
In other words, what they actually confirm is the correction of measurements of angular velocity that they have made –not the hypothesis of dark matter. Although we must understand, the term dark matter itself means it could be anything.
Velocity of stars close to the center of a galaxy increases as their distance to the center increases because their classical gravitational displacement depends on the mass of all the astronomical objects, not just the central black ball. Once this effect disappears, the angular velocity should decrease once again.
Global Astrophysics and rotation of galaxies
According to the mechanisms seen in the previous subsection 1.c.2.b) Dark Energy in Global Physics, there is an easy explanation about similar angular velocity of stars far away from and closer to the center of some galaxies.
Let us consider the simple experiment of a balloon inflating, like when explaining expansion of the Universe. If, instead of drawing dots on the exterior of the balloon, we were to imagine an elastic bar in the radius from the center to the exterior, and we were to draw dots on this bar; when the balloon was inflated dots would also get further and further away from each other.
In addition, if at the same time that we inflate the balloon we turn it, we will have angular velocity of dots will be very similar if the balloon inflates much quicker than it is turned.
Global Astrophysics incorporates effects of expansion and contraction of the global aether. Its combination with classical gravitational effects could get us closer to a physical explanation for angular velocity of stars in some galaxies.
An implicit element in concepts of contraction and expansion of the Universe in Global Mechanics is drag of mass to certain extend by the global aether –inverse movement in the book Physics and Global Dynamics. One must consider a train drags a passenger with it, but this does not mean the passenger cannot move within the train.
Let us remember that Global aether is not the gravitational field; one thing is the three-dimensional material structure of global aether, and other is the tension of its longitudinal curvature. This tension –or gravitational field– can move without a global aether displacement; other times, the opposite can also occur.
One must also not forget that, because electromagnetic energy moves on tension of longitudinal curvature of the global aether –in accordance with Global Mechanics–, relativistic interpretation of information we receive can have truly interesting effects upon the supposedly observed reality.
Another way of presenting the proposal of Global Astrophysics is using a simple sequence of images.
In the first column, one can see a galaxy with stars very close to its center. In the second, expansion of outer space provoked by the stars has made the galaxy increase in size. Finally, in the third column, space occupied by the galaxy is much larger.
This sequence of images shows how expansion of the Universe is cumulative for the stars that are far away from the center of the galaxy. In other words, their apparent angular velocity will be bigger than expected due to the accumulated effect of expansion of the Universe produced by closer stars to the center.
The figure also shows how the closest star causes a smaller expansion than the rest, due to contraction of the Universe that probably occurs in the surrounding area of the center of the galaxy. This is not only due to the supermassive black hole that almost certainly exists, but also due to multiple black holes that will exist and the little accumulative effect of the stars.
Perhaps comparison between those galaxies with aforementioned phenomenon of faraway stars and those in which it is not present or it appears with less intensity could shine some light on dark matter topic. If proposal put forth by Global Astrophysics is correct, those galaxies in which the phenomenon does not occur should be smaller contain many black holes or less stars.
Supposed expansion of the Universe provoked by the Sun does not “push” the Earth away; as is to be expected, the effect is very small compared to force of gravity. Perhaps it would be larger if the bubbles in the figure represented billions of stars in a particular galaxy and billions of years. In any case, this effect of expansion of the Universe would add one more component of what we know as force of gravity; that is to say, it could imply a very slight correction in the masses of the Sun and the planets of the Solar System.
Maybe inclusion of these precisions could aid in adjustments to the table of positions of the planets –ephemerides– and masses of the Solar System. This is in constant evolution, such as recent measurements using radio pulsar signals; it could even serve as a scientific experiment to support Global Physics.
The inverse movement previously mentioned would imply that the mass has a drag effect by expansion of the global aether as a function of the quadratic relation of its velocity with respect to velocity of light. On the contrary, according Global Physics, gravitational field –luminiferous aether or tension of the longitudinal curvature of global aether– has a full drag effect on light.
Conclusion of Global Astrophysics is that, if expansion of the Universe is much faster in one particular galaxy than orbital movement of the stars around the center of said galaxy, then angular velocity of the stars, which are far away from this center, will be very similar. This is despite theoretical rotational movement at a very different angular velocity, due exclusively to gravitational effects.
With this mechanism, dark matter is not necessary to clarify rotation of the galaxies, as it was it not necessary to elucidate gravitational lensing without mass. Furthermore, it is the same mechanism used to illuminate the so-called expansion of the Universe or, properly said, expansion of the global aether.
Also, let us remark that this mechanism is implicit in the concept of mass contributed by Global Physics; and used both in his new atom theory in Global Mechanics and in the development of its motion theory in Global Dynamics.
Just as on previous occasions, this is a very general and renormalizable presentation. Anything but stretching space, shrinking time or shoving things into other dimensions.