2.b) The Big Bang Theory and Inflation

Physicists say the new particle accelerator LHC –Large Hadron Collider–, dependent on the European Organization for Nuclear Research–CERN–, will create a small black hole in order to understand better initial conditions of the Universe.

Let us hope they do not manage to recreate completely the initial conditions outlined in the Big Bang Theory! Though for this to happen, it would be necessary to have two little black balls, such as those described further on, in other words, somewhat larger than a proton.

The Big Bang Theory proposes the Universe resulted from an initial explosion, which is a generally accepted theory; though of course, it is not the same as proven. In any case, as there are no further details about before the supposed initial explosion or Big Bang, it configures another singularity; in other words, the origin is completely unknown.

Whether or not the Big Bang Theory is true, great explosions occur naturally in the Universe, such as those originated by supernovas; many large implosions also occur, such as the so-called black holes or big black balls, though they are not as fast as the former.

Principle of Global Conservation proposes an equivalence between gravity and mass, as different states the global aether to explain big black balls. The various manifestations of energy are simply properties of the global aether in these different states.

In addition, it proposes existence of the inverse phenomenon to that of big black balls, named white fountain that could help us in Cosmology to gain a deeper understanding of the Big Bang Theory.

PHYSICS NEWS

“The Big Bang is similar to a black hole – only the other way around.

In a certain sense, the singularity in the interior of a black hole is like the singularity at the origin of the Universe, but with time inverted: in the Big Bang, everything emerges from the singularity, while a black hole absorbs everything. It is somewhat like reversing the time of the singularity.”

El País 23-03-2011, Kip Thorne

On the book Global Mechanics, we discussed the structure of the global or gravitational aether, which supports gravity. In addition, in the sections on black holes or big black balls and stars of this book we argued about aspects of other astrophysical phenomena such as contraction and expansion of the Universe.

Opposing the Big Bang Theory is the Steady State Theory. We would say the theory of everything proposed by Global Physics –after being further developed by Global Mechanics and Global Dynamics– supports the Big Bang Theory, but only as origin of the surrounding area or local Universe –Small Bang. In this sense, one has to understand the concepts of “surrounding area” and “local” within the context of an infinite Universe –or indeed, a Universe so large that it appears to be infinite.

Concept of observable Universe does not necessarily have to correspond with that of local Universe, in the sense of part of the Universe affected by the Small Bang.

From the perspective of an infinite Universe, the Steady State Theory could also be admissible, but without imposing conditions of homogeneity, and without altering concepts of space and time in relativistic sense. That is to say, it only would remain the idea that the entire Universe does not appear or disappear; it simply remains in a dynamic equilibrium at a large scale.

Carina Nebulosa NGC 3372
NASA and STScI-Hubble Team (Public domain image)
Carina Nebulosa NGC 3372. NASA and STScI-Hubble Team

White fountains or stars and big black balls would involve gravitational processes of the global aether operating in opposite ways. Thus, the initial explosion in the Big Bang Theory could be a special white fountain and not origin of the entire Universe.

In a strict sense, both the Big Bang Theory and the Theory of Parallel Universes are not admissible from an epistemological point of view; as from nothing, nothing can emerge, and two parallel straight lines will never come together unless the fat dot theorem is applied.

In the previous section on origin of the Universe, we presented other criticisms of the Big Bang Theory.

Although the theory on origin of the Universe generally accepted by the scientific community is indeed the Big Bang Theory (Wikipedia), we consider it highly possible that a great explosion or white fountain was likely origin of the part of the Universe we find ourselves in –Small Bang. This explosion would have an inverse nature to the process of reticular contraction.

New vision of Global Cosmology gives possible explanations for both energy source of the Big Bang or initial white fountain of our part of the Universe –or local Universe– and for the Theory of Cosmic Inflation.

  • Small Bang.

    Surely, by using just a little bit of imagination we could think of many possible causes of a special white fountain or Small Bang,  related to black holes, such as:

    • Collision of supermassive black holes

      The two supermassive black holes should have opposite spatial configuration right-handed and left-handed nature.

      Taking into account gravitational elongation –opposite to creation of loops or curls–, if a black hole and an anti-black hole were to collide, one right wing and the other left wing in nature, what would inevitably occur in this unlikely and hypothetical scenario would be an explosion of both and a consequent expansion of the local Universe.

    • Physical limit of a big black ball

      Another idea could be that a black hole could get to be so massive that it would reach a physical limit relative to the folding in the filaments of global aether that form the mass. Specifically, the gravity would be so large that the loops that form the atoms and elementary particles would suddenly become undone.

      One must remember that, according to Global Mechanics, the mass of a proton or a neutron is like a slipknot, and is stable in the reticular structure of matter or global aether.

      • Simple Physics experiment

        Normally, a stable knot of strings is one where, when attempting to undo it by pulling on the strings, the knot just gets tighter.

        However, logic dictates that if one were to pull hard enough, it is possible that the knot would become undone, as long as the strings do not break.

  • Inflation of the Universe

    Now, we will discuss the Theory of Cosmic Inflation; this refers to evolution of the Universe in the first moments after the Big or Small Bang, regardless of its cause.

    In both explosion of two big black balls or a physical limit of the mass, reversion of compressed mass would provoke a great expansion of the global aether. If the size of the big black balls involved were sufficiently large, this expansion could explain the period known as cosmic inflation.

    However, even if they were not, the period of cosmic inflation Universe could also happen if the size were large enough to provoke such a large decrease in longitudinal tension of the global aether, that could produced the undoing of the knots that form the mass of nearby stars and holes, due to their tendency to decompression.

    • Physics example

      A knot of strings can be easily undone if its internal tension is relaxed.

    This last mechanism brings to mind a chain reaction, though we doubt a few little balls at the LHC could provoke one.

    On the other hand, the fact that the speed of light is constant and maximum in its natural reference frame is not contradictory with the expansion of global aether.

    Thus, electromagnetic waves travelling upon luminiferous aether –and this one being dragged by longitudinal tension of the global aether– will have velocities much higher than *c* in the initial moments of the Universe, even if it is just our local one.

    In fact, in order to make sense not knowing the origin of the Small Bang, velocity of expansion of the global aether during the period of inflation should have been very high indeed.

    A first estimation of this velocity, which could somewhat fit with the extreme distances we are referring to, could be that of *c²*. It is, after all, the relation between electromagnetic energy and mass, and we are precisely talking about changes between these two states of aggregation of matter.

To conclude this book on the life of the Universe, we would like to thank all the collaborators of Wikipedia for their work and efforts to contribute to Modern Science because they are more objective than technical papers, bearing in mind their authors are always an interested part.

Finally, I’ve just realized something; according to Global Mechanics, when we move, we do not only abandon the space we were occupying, but also the reticular structure of matter of which we were made of and which we were modulating with our energy. I do not know why, but this is beginning to remind me of the Equation of Love.

 

 

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 When Einsotro finished his masterpiece Global Astrophysics,
as a celebration he told Mª José:

–I’m inviting you to come to my house for dinner,
I will prepare my culinary specialty:
Dorada al Tinto, Tintorro

So Mª José answered:

–Why don’t you invite Don Magufo and Goblin as well?–

Einsotro, who expected anything from her, answered:

What a witch you are!