4.b) Gravitational phenomena
4.b.1. Characteristics of longitudinal and gravitational waves
The existence of gravitational waves –intuitively known by Newton, studied by Laplace and foreseen by Einstein’s General Relativity– is an interesting subject, since they bring us closer to understanding gravity nature.
However, one thing is the transmission of gravity itself, and another is the gravitational waves described by General Relativity; these two concepts are certainly not the same.
The former corresponds to waves discussed in this section; waves described in General Relativity could refer to displacements of the reticular structure of matter –global, kinetic or gravitational ether–, which supports gravity, kinetic energy and mass. These displacements could themselves relate partly with dark energy, as mentioned in the book Global Astrophysics and Cosmology.
However, due to dark concept of gravity in General Relativity, it calls gravitational waves both variations in gravitational field intensity, and space-time distortions. To avoid misunderstandings, gravity relativistic concept is space-time distortions, whatever effects it may produce.
The future LISA experiment –Laser Interferometer Space Antenna–attempt to detect relativistic gravitational waves. It is an experiment similar to the one carried out by Michelson and Morley, but in outer space. Nevertheless, as we explain in the book Global Physics Experiments, we think it will show a different behavior of light than in the Michelson-Morley experiment. This would mean, more or less, the end of the General Relativity.
On the other hand, it appears LIGO experiment –Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory– has finally detected gravitational waves. LIGO has the same objectives as LISA, but it is a ground experiment, carried out on Earth. As such, it does not contradict General Relativity.
This detection of relativistic gravitational waves is curious because in General Relativity there is no ether, unless the ether with mechanical properties is space-time itself.
Concept of waves is very broad and there are several classifications. Wikipedia’s page about physical waves is quite good and includes animated images.
Continuing with gravitational waves that transmit tension of longitudinal curvature of gravitational ether filaments; normally no one discuss which characteristics they should have, apart from transmitting or bearing the elastic potential energy of gravitational field.
The most interesting aspect to us is the speed of gravitational waves. However, first let us see their characteristics with regards to following criteria:
Waves requiring or not a medium
According to Global Physics, every single wave needs a medium. Otherwise, they would be abstract or magical waves. Here we must quote Newton, as he disliked forces at distance.
Wikipedia differentiate between mechanical waves, such as sound waves, electromagnetic waves or those of transmission of so-called fields –assumed immaterial– and gravitational waves, which would represent the transmission of distortions in space itself.
It appears that Modern Physics, in addition to using phantom light waves, confuses changes in size and tension of the reticules of the gravitational ether with changes in space itself. It then uses time variations to fit with the model with observations of the physical reality, before turning, of course, to singularities and uncertainties as a last resort.
Periodic and non-periodic waves
Gravitational waves should be periodic, since tension of gravitational ether is constant –unlike light waves, which appear in a non-periodic way. The type of waves, which are non-periodic, is pulses.
The elastic energy of the gravitational or global ether needs a constant vibration due to concept of elasticity itself; a body at absolute rest could not have any internal energy.
Stationary and propagating waves
Gravitational waves will be stationary waves, since force of gravity would exist in a static field of gravity.
The propagation of changes in tension of the longitudinal curvature should take place due to the vibration or resonance of stationary waves of gravitational ether.
Longitudinal and transverse waves
Longitudinal tension of the reticular structure of matter should be kept with longitudinal spring-like waves or as two-dimensional waves; but not as torsion ones, such as the electromagnetic waves.
Nodes of longitudinal or two-dimensional waves could match the vertexes of the gravitational ether’s grids.
Actually, the idea we want to illustrate is that both propagating waves of gravitational field intensity and electromagnetic waves propagate at the speed of the vibration or resonance of the gravitational ether’s stationary longitudinal waves.
One-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional waves
This concept on the dimensions of a wave is quite clear, however, we would say that a group of waves is often mistaken for a unique one because they occur simultaneously.
Let us look now at the speed of gravitational waves as transmission of tension of the longitudinal curvature due to changes in spatial location of mass that causes it.
This aspect about gravitational interaction is not easy, there is little and unclear information available. Just bear in mind that Modern Physics denies existence of the gravitational ether or any type of ether with mechanical properties. This last claim is nothing but a euphemism of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.
Vibration speed of the gravitational ether as longitudinal waves is related to point “Magnetic wave propagation and constant speed of light” included in section “Properties of light waves and photons” and electromagnetic interaction of the book Global Mechanics.
Resonance of mass is a different issue, since it increases with motion and with the gravitational ether’s longitudinal tension, as discussed in section Physics and movement in gravity of the book Physics and Global Dynamics, it can vary from *c* so as to almost c²
There are two possibilities regarding gravitational waves speed as transmission of tension of the longitudinal curvature responsible for gravity force.
Arguments would be:
Speed c² or a figure of a similar order
Laplace stated in 1825 that gravitational waves propagation speed should be at least 108 c due to difference between direction of the Earth’s centripetal acceleration towards the Sun and direction of the light coming from the Sun to the Earth.
Now, let see where the Earth’s centripetal acceleration points at due to the effect of the Sun’s gravitational force. As we already know that it takes 8.3 minutes for the light from the Sun to reach the Earth, the direction of light points at the sun’s location 8.3 minutes before, there should be an adjust because of light dragging which, however, will be a small one since mentioned drag decreases rapidly with distance.
Thanks to the astronomical observations made, it is known that the Earth’s centripetal acceleration vector points 20 arc seconds at the direction of motion of the Sun regarding the one of Light; in other words, it points at the correct spatial location of the Sun in that precise moment.
Other studies with solar eclipse due to the Moon and with binary pulsars provide similar minimum quantities.
The speed of gravity longitudinal waves is equal to the speed of light
One might think that the centripetal force over the Earth points faithfully to the Sun is not because of gravitational waves speed, but because gravitational forces are additive. In the context in which the Sun has a galactic translational movement, the Earth’s motion is due both to the Sun’s gravitational force and to the force of gravity responsible for said Sun’s motion, which will affect the Earth in exactly the same way.
In other words, if we take out the gravitational force on both the Sun and the Earth, the result will be a static Sun. Therefore, there would be no need to imagine the speed of any gravitational wave, since gravity force will not vary because we are only considering the variation in the Sun’s gravitational force, which is null.
Global Law of Gravity’s argumentation about the atractis causa, regarding that gravitational force affects light twice than mass according Newton’s gravity, is consistent with the similar transmission speed of gravity and light.
Scientists from the Missouri-Columbia University have claimed, in 2003, that they have measured the speed of gravity within a margin of error of 20% and they maintain it is equal to electromagnetic waves speed.
Finally, gravitational waves detected by LIGO experiment have the same speed as light.