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The nuclear force refers to the strong and weak nuclear interaction. According to Wikipedia, the strong residual nuclear force is derived from the strong force. Unification of the nuclear interaction with the electromagnetic force and gravitation.
In the previous section, we described the process of forming stable atomic particles and physics causes that justify their stability and the extremely similar size of nucleons, protons and neutrons.
In the abovementioned description, we mentioned the different forces that are at play and that help understand the nature of nuclear forces.
Before getting into analyzing nuclear force, it is worth pointing out that the model in Global Mechanics is different from the well-known model in Quantum Mechanics, and the model in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which does not mean that the calculations in Quantum Chromodynamics are erroneous or do not correspond to reality, but what is incorrect is the interpretation of the underlying physics causes. Something similar occurs with Einstein’s Theory of Relativity when time is stretched out or space is lengthened.
The Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is a generalization of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) due to having a similar mathematical structure but, instead of an electric charge, it has three color charges and, instead of a photon, it has eight gluons.
In any case, the perspectives from Global Mechanics (GM) and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) are completely different and I hope they can complement each other in that where one renormalizes ideas, the other renormalizes mathematics.
Something that creates a lot of confusion is the terminology used by Quantum Mechanics for elementary particles that intervene in nuclear force; nonetheless, we have to acknowledge the difficulty in describing the unknown. Sometimes I have the impression that it is like describing drops of water that fall on a pond full of frogs and toads of different species and ages.
In the page of this online book about the main elementary particles of the Standard Model, there is a brief reference to the relationships between these elementary particles and the types of fundamental particles according to Global Mechanics.
The global elements of nuclear force are:
Strong nuclear force
According to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), both strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force operate in the interior of protons or neutrons, while the nuclear force that is responsible for maintaining the nucleus of the bonded atom is called the strong residual nuclear force for historical reasons given that, according to Wikipedia, the force that kept the atomic nucleus whole was at first called strong nuclear force.
Global Mechanics unifies the support of the strong force with that of the electromagnetic force, which the Theory of Global Equivalence (TGE), that Global Mechanics forms part of, arranges into a grand unified theory (GUT). The Theory of Global Equivalence also includes a theory of everything (TOE) by unifying strong nuclear interaction and the electroweak interaction with the gravitational interaction.
Triple torsion of globine
The mass of protons and neutrons is made up of curled reticular structure of matter, or globine, due to the accumulation of electromagnetic force. It also discusses the possibility of double or triple torsions of globine, which opens the way to reticular matter accumulating much more elastic energy.
As described in the previous section, protons or neutrons are made up of three quarks in the interior of a reticule or, to be more precise, they are held together by the filaments of a specific reticule, given that there is only matter in the filaments of the edges of the hypothetical reticular cube in the stage of supersymmetry, or simply, globine without mass. Besides curls, or, strictly speaking, quarks, we find double or triple torsions of globine, or strong field, inside the reticule. In fact, it seems that most of the mass of nucleons correspond to filamentous matter in the strong field.
The heyelogic figure of a triple torsion wave, or a more or less static strong field, is a simplification in order to offer an intuitive idea, but we should not forget that globine has an unbreakable three-dimensional reticular structure.
The main idea is that the strong nuclear force is made up of two opposing forces in balance, the strong internal force and the strong external force.
The strong external force comes into existence by the elasticity of the filaments of the three-dimensional reticule, since they are responsible for quarks and the entire strong field not coming apart due to the reversion of its elastic energy of deformation. This description is similar in a way to the confinement of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)
The internal strong force would be the tendency of the globine curls to come undone due to the accumulated elastic energy of deformation; whether it be single, double or greater level of torsion.
The phrase used in Wikipedia, “…the gluons that bond the quarks create a field of color with the shape of a cord that, with enormous force, stop the quarks from separating …” is very interesting by the fact that it mentions gluons and the strong color force in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The force of the cord is so immense that, according to Global Mechanics (GM), it is unbreakable when dealing with the filaments of a reticule of globine.
Likewise, the balance of the strong force that creates nucleons makes mass very stable by mutually blocking the internal curls, as if it were a knot where the harder the ends are pulled the stronger it gets.
Weak nuclear force
The positive charge of protons or the neutral charge of neutrons can be understood as being the result of the need for internal equilibrium in the electromagnetic tension between different quarks.
It has been mentioned in other sections that the formation of an electron in any orbit involves the energy of electromagnetic torsion reaching a physical limit allowed by globine as far as the curls of the mass. The three quarks of the nucleons include three sources of different electrical charges and they could respond to another physical limit of torsion in the strong field; but since this field will be connected to the exterior electromagnetic field, eventually, the imposed limit would be the limit of the mass formation of the electromagnetic torsion.
The total charge of the proton cannot exceed that of the electron due to the mentioned need for internal equilibrium in the electromagnetic tension.
In any case, they are only farfetched ideas.
I have the unfounded suspicion that the charge of the proton and neutron changes, or can change with speed and that the electrons cancel out more positive charge of the atom nucleus the faster they move in their orbits.
The accumulated elastic energy can be neutralized between different quarks by their spatial confinement within the reticule. If the strong force involves a balance between internal forces and the external force of the reticular filaments, the weak nuclear force represents a balance between the interior forces of the different quarks.
The weak interaction, or weak force, refers to the changes in the internal configuration of the particles of protons and neutrons. The most well-known are the beta decay and radioactivity. Beta decay is the transformation of a neutron intro a proton by means of the emission of a W boson, which breaks down almost immediately into an electron of high energy and an antineutrino. Weak interaction can be found in more detail in Wikipedia.
Furthermore, the weak interaction or weak force is a result of the need for electromagnetic equilibrium, in what I call the internal strong field in an attempt to maintain similar terminology to a certain extent with that of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), just as electrons of the atom are a result of the gravito-magnetic field generated between the nucleus and the exterior space of the atom.
The neutron should contain a balance of forces of torsion that annuls its total charge; therefore the three quarks should not have the same nature as their curls.
In special cases, such as those of nuclear interaction, we could talk of strong waves or weak waves so as to not confuse them with electromagnetic waves.
The electroweak model in Quantum Mechanics unifies the weak nuclear force with electromagnetic force since they behave the same at high energies; therefore, it is included in grand unification theory (GUT)
Global Mechanics (GM) shares this idea; however, the unification with strong nuclear force is conceptually produced by being supported by globine. The mechanism of retaining filaments in the strong force is not the same as that of elastic energy of torsion; although it will quantitatively produce the necessary balance.
Strong residual force
This nuclear force is responsible for the nucleus of the atom remaining whole in spite of the hypothetical repulsive electromagnetic forces between the protons.
Theory of the atom
Residual strong force
I say they are hypothetical because the waves of double and triple torsion distort the effect of electromagnetic field, just as the electromagnetic field distorts the gravitational force for the particles with electrical charge that interact.
I think that the strong residual force is the result of the residual strong field created around protons and neutrons due to the effect of the double or triple torsion in the three-dimensional structure of globine.
The heyelogic image shows how the strong residual force could behave, that is, fitting in zones of strong tension with others of lesser tension between nucleons.
The fact that the strong residual force acts only in short distances is due to the fact that the double or triple torsion quickly stops existing with distance due to the large energy necessary to maintain it, which is only possible thanks to the resistance of the filaments of a reticule by being stretched.
Furthermore, there are special effects that can be created in short distances, such as that explained in the section on gravitational force in this online book. In fact, the strong external nuclear force would appear more like a type of gravitation than electromagnetism due to its dependence on the longitudinal torsion of the filaments of a reticule.
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