2.c.3. Elementary particles and Standard Model of Physics
This section attempts to present a simplified explanation of the Standard Model of Quantum Mechanics and analyze its compatibility with the contributions from Global Mechanics regarding elementary particles.
There is no simple way to explain the logic of the set of elementary particles in the Standard Model of Particle Physics because there is none. However, we are not trying to give destructive criticism about the model; one should understand the previous statement in the same way in which one could talk about the list of chemical elements before the periodic table of elements.
In our opinion, the biggest problem with the Standard Model of Physics is that Einstein’s Theory of Relativity does not allow it to discover the essence of elementary particles by outright denying that any type of aether or material structure of virtual fields could exist, and by singularly complicating the already complex mathematics.
The elementary particles of the Standard Model form a more or less orderly set based on observed characteristics, but its cause is not very well understood; because of this, it is necessary to resort to axiomatic principles such as the Pauli Exclusion Principle, or the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle –just to quote the most well-known ones.
Below is a presentation of both the classification of the elementary particles in the Standard Model of Quantum Mechanics and in Global Mechanics.
Elementary Particles of the Standard Model of Physics
We cannot help mentioning that the main characteristic of the Standard Model is that seems to use names straight out of Greek mythology or from the world of Lord of the Rings.
The first classification refers to the particles called Bosons and Fermions. Bosons are responsible for the transmission of forces, they have an integer spin, the Pauli Exclusion Principle does not affect them, and the Bose-Einstein statistics can describe them.
Fermions are the building blocks of matter, they have half-integer spin, they verify the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and the Fermi-Dirac statistics can describe.
Some particles included in the elementary particles of the Standard Model are not elementary in the strictest sense, since they are composed of smaller particles. Therefore, it would be more accurate to speak of subatomic particles.
The antiparticles of many of the subatomic particles in the tables also belong to the Standard Model.
A more detailed description of the particles in these tables is in Wikipedia.
Elementary particles in Global Mechanics
The following table shows a classification of the subatomic particles, similar to that presented in the Standard Model, but from the point of view of Global Mechanics.
The colors show the approximate relationship between the major types of fundamental particles.
At this point, we are able to examine the problems of compatibility between the two models and propose solutions.
In reality, it is difficult to make a precise comparison, since several criteria combine. Quantum Mechanics does not even know what mass is, nor the origin of mass, nor anything beyond its effects of inertia or gravitation. Moreover, it is always concerned with the wave-particle duality of light and the particle-wave nature of matter. As a result, it cannot tell the difference between particles with proper mass at rest and waves, or mechanical transmission of energy across the reticular structure of matter or global aether.
In fact, the name “particles without mass” immediately raises semantic issues. While the Standard Model establishes types of elementary particles based on their participation in the different basic interactions, the Global Model uses the composition of fundamental particles as the main element of classification.
Therefore, we could continue in this way with many other concepts; however, in spite of the different perspective of each model, their final types are quite similar.
This simple comparative analysis attempts to highlight the described differences throughout this book, like concept of wavons or fundamental particles with a mixed or sequential nature in time, such as waves and mass.
On one hand, it also attempts to provide an intuitive picture of the set of elementary particles without having to use half the memory of the human brain. On the other hand, to detect any compatibility issues and to contrast important aspects of Global Mechanics since, lest we forget, Quantum Mechanics is an experimental science and its observations are empirical, even if they are not explained to our satisfaction or if they do not know exactly what they are observing.
In short, the deeper one goes into the characteristics of elementary particles, the more speculative the ideas become, due to the limitations of the physics experiments and of the scientific theories themselves.
The aspects to highlight of the comparison between the Standard and Global models are:
The existence of global aether
The presence in Global Mechanics of an essential particle, or unbreakable reticular structure of matter throughout the universe, which could be considered as a type of gravitational aether with mechanical properties and which provides matter and supports the energy of all the remaining particles.
Global aether does not have a known spatial physical limit (3 dimensions), nor time constraints (absolute time)
The great mass of bosons
The great mass that the W and Z bosons have – which is some 160,000 times that of the electron, or 80 times that of the proton – indicates that at high energy levels, the mass of the proton or of the neutron is quite a bit higher than in normal conditions. Regardless of the mathematical models used in Physics by Quantum Mechanics, we could assume that the nucleons will have acquired this mass by means of a successive absorption of photons, thereby confirming the increase of mass with energy.
Nonetheless, the difference between the concept of inertial mass, gravitational mass, and that of the mass of the elementary particles as loops of the reticular structure of matter, reminds me of the possibility that the elasticity of this structure could allow double, triple or even higher layers of torsion. In other words, perhaps the relationship between energy and material mass is not the same as that between energy and equivalent mass. Furthermore, the concept of mass of a quark is not inertial or gravitational mathematical, but chromodynamics.
The graviton and the Higgs boson
According to Global Mechanics, these two hypothetical elementary particles of the Standard Model would not exist as suppliers of mass to the rest of the fundamental particles, because global aether carries out that function.
Stability of subatomic particles with mass
In both the Standard Model and the Global Model, the only two stable particles are the neutron and the proton. In one case, the confinement is justified by the asymptotic freedom of the color force in the strong interaction which, judging by its name, is not very well understood. In another case, it is justified by the existence of reticules of global aether.
As far as the instability of the rest of the subatomic particles is concerned, Particle Physics does not offer any explanation, whereas Global Mechanics argues the effect of the reversible deformation energy when there is no force that opposes it.
Other fundamental particles with mass could be stable, but under conditions very different from normal ones, such as in the special case of black holes, or other elementary particles under strong magnetic fields.
In contrast to the concept of mass in Modern Physics, let us recap that the electron does not generate –or very small– forces of gravity according to Global Mechanics, in spite of having mass in the sense of half-folds or curls of global aether.
Likewise, protons and neutrons, at short distances, produce negative gravity, or the gravitational force of repulsion.
Creation of mass, electron mass and neutrino mass
One aspect that we wanted to verify was the coherence of the proposal in Global Mechanics regarding the electron mass as the physical limit for the creation of mass. In other words, elementary particles with lower mass than the electron should not exist.
In fact, of the elementary particles with mass in the Standard Model have a higher mass than the electron, but there are a few exceptions; two out of the three neutrinos have a mass lower than that of the electron and the mass of the electron neutrino, in particular is of the order of a million times smaller.
A possible solution is that what Quantum Mechanics considers mass of the electron –or muon– neutrinos, is not mass as defined in Global Mechanics, or that it is a special type of mass. The neutrinos could be longitudinal waves upon the global aether, instead of transversal waves such as the photon.
Another coincidence with these rarities of the neutrinos is the rare interaction with matter; if neutrinos relate to longitudinal waves; it would make sense for them not to interact normally with the loops of global aether produced by the transversal waves.
In addition, other characteristic of the proposed nature of neutrinos is that they could produce or contribute to the expansion of the universe.