2.c.2.b.2. Configuration and structure of the atom: What are electrons?
In the section on unstable Fundamental Particles with mass, we defined a new type of particles called wavons, which share the material nature of mass and the wave nature at several moments of their existence. Electrons were a specific case of wavons and if the atomic nucleus acquires or loses energy, the point of equilibrium that generated them before alters.
The mixed nature of electrons is independent from the dual property of matter, initially introduced by De Broglie in 1924, which refers to a different aspect. Furthermore, this duality of matter is different from the poorly named dual nature of light, as has been discussed in previous sections of this book.
In other words, electrons in the new structure of the atom in Global Mechanics do not magically appear and disappear, or come and go from other dimensions, as statements from the current Quantum Mechanics would seem to indicate.
Let us keep in mind that, besides the electron configuration, there are elements of the atom in a nucleus of protons and neutrons (particles with mass, or compressed matter) which possess most of the mass, as established by the Rutherford model in 1911 with the Geiger–Marsden experiment (also called the Gold foil experiment or the Rutherford experiment). Rutherford fixed the radius of the atom as approximately 10,000 times that of its nucleus.
The fundamental innovation of Global Mechanics, regarding the elements and structure of the atom, is the configuration of electrons because of the electromagnetic field and as elements reducing the transversal tension of this field; this is in contrast to Quantum Mechanics, which states that electrons in motion generate an electromagnetic field, although this is also true.
Perhaps it seems to be simply a philosophical change, but effect-cause is not the same as cause-effect, much less so is cause-cause, as a large part of the current Quantum Mechanics proposes.
Regardless, we hope that the new characteristics of the elements of the atom and its electron configuration aid the more precise understanding of electrons, their origin, their orbits and those of the rest of the wavons of the atomic structure.
The point of equilibrium where electrons exist is a dynamic equilibrium; what's more, however, the dynamics or movement of the electrons in the structure of the atom respond to different causes and display different behaviors.
Let us look at some of the additional characteristics of the structure of the atom and, in particular, its electron configuration. First, we shall examine electron motion within any orbit and subsequently, analyze both the reasons for which they change orbit and the way in which they do it.
The dynamic orbits of electrons
The most relevant change in the electron configuration of the new atomic model is, without a doubt, the shape and meaning of the orbits of the electrons.
The Rutherford atomic structure defines the electron orbits as circular and elliptical, the Bohr atomic theory presumes them to be circular, and the Sommerfeld model adds sublevels, rules out circular orbits and includes relativity. In the end, the current Schrödinger model changes the philosophy of atomic orbits and outlines areas of probability of finding an electron in the spatial structure of the atom.
According to Global Mechanics, the electron configuration of the atomic structure also accepts the zones of spatial localization of negative charges around the nucleus –or electrons–, which belong to the type of elementary particles called wavons. Electrons have ellipsoid orbits that are variable in spite of being stable. As a result, the orbits represent the points through which the electrons move while they share the nature of mass; that is, as they are indeed wavons, when they have the characteristic of coiled global aether of mass and not of an electromagnetic wave.
The orbits of electrons are dynamic, ellipsoid, not necessarily around the atomic nucleus, and they correspond to spatial points where the resulting force of electromagnetic tension –torsion–, and the tension of longitudinal curvature –or global gravitational curvature–, is null. Or rather, is null due to the electron motion, the vibration of the nucleus of the atom and the half-fold or bend that form the electrons.
The wavon will orbit because the movement itself neutralizes –is a consequence of– the force of residual torsion, or difference in the residual gravito-magnetic potential, after the elastic energy of torsion neutralizes with the half-fold of mass of the electron itself.
The orbits of the electron configuration are dynamic or have a cloud-like shape such as in the Schrödinger atom model of 1926, because of the vibration of the atomic nucleus. This vibration occurs because the distribution of elastic forces of torsion and of tension of the longitudinal curvature is not uniform, nor can it have purely radial symmetry; like the force of gravity, which is considered an isolated case, and only at greater distances than atomic distances.
For this reason, the orbits of the electron configuration in the new atom model will also be ellipsoid. The ellipsoid figure will not have to be on a single plane of space –rather, it will be a three-dimensional ellipsoid. In addition, neither will the nucleus of the atom have to be located within the orbital cloud.
One could already see in the Schrödinger structure of the atom that the zones of movement are not always orbits around the nucleus. Although the orbits of the electrons may be circular or elliptical, this will not always be the case. Generally, they will be ellipsoid.
Let us take a careful look at why the motion of electrons within an orbit responds to the electromagnetic energy not relaxed by the half-fold of which they formed.
The dance of the Wavons
The mass of the electron depends on the stored elastic energy. From a spatial perspective, the energy of the electrons will be equivalent to the neutralized elastic energy and will depend on the physical limit, in order for a half-fold, loop or curl of global aether create, and on its orbital speed.
However, the neutralization by the movement of the wavons in the structure of the atom takes place with each complete turn or revolution; that is, the only orbital frequencies allowed are those that can neutralize or relax the forces of torsion. At the same time, the speed of the electrons will neutralize these forces, since depends on them. It is somewhat similar to when we want to touch something with our hand, and that something moves in the same direction and speed, our force or intention to touch or push it will become neutralized.
I do not know if it is just me today, or if it is actually very difficult to explain the elements of the new atomic structure, or both, so I am going to try explaining it another way.
In the heyelogic figure, there is a pair of hands holding a polyurethane bar by the ends with torsion. If the hands make a movement, like peddling a bicycle, in the same direction as the forces of torsion or twisting transversal tension, the tension at the ends of the bar held by the hands will not vary substantially. Nevertheless, if they move in the opposite direction, due to the elastic reaction in the bar, the tension in the hands will disappear once it reaches a certain rotation speed; the only thing that one can do is to let the two hands go along with the movement.
The tension produces an elastic force that tends to move the hands, but if the hands move backwards with the same speed that they would have from the effect of the elastic forces of torsion, these elastic forces will no longer be noticeable; that is, from this point on, outside of the hands, they do not exist. For future reference, we should name this mechanism of elastic relaxation in the structure of the atom. We like the name dance of the wavons.
The spatial points through which the electrons move in their dance are not the orbits around the nucleus, but rather they will move upon an axis of symmetry that can in turn be mobile, based on the result of the existing elastic forces at play.
Configuración electrónica y Principio de Pauli.
Los electrones no tienen por qué estar recorriendo la órbita entera, sino que cada uno de los dos electrones del mismo estado se encontrará en un recorrido de ida y vuelta en una parte de la órbita; esto se deberá a la vibración del átomo por el juego de las elasticidades del éter global cuando el átomo tenga el movimiento restringido por cualquier causa, como en el caso de formar parte de moléculas. Baste recordar que el electrón existe en los puntos de equilibrio de fuerzas elásticas y dependientes de la situación del núcleo del átomo respecto a su entorno.
Una idea intuitiva del Principio de Pauli se puede conseguir con el siguiente ejemplo sobre la resistencia a deformaciones en un balón de plástico duro.
Experimento sencillo de física.
Si le damos una patada al balón no le pasará nada, pero si es muy fuerte se puede producir una hendidura en el balón en forma de gajo de naranja más o menos grande.
Ahora, si continuásemos con pataditas por todo el balón y cada vez más fuertes nos encontraríamos con que el siguiente gajo de naranja aparecería justo en las antípodas del primero y con la misma orientación. El tercero ya no se producirá en el mismo plano.
Por supuesto todo depende de las elasticidades del plástico, y creo que, si se definen adecuadamente de forma matemática, se podría demostrar y generalizar que bajo ciertas condiciones el resultado sería siempre el mismo.
Entonces el Principio de Pauli dejaría de ser un principio y pasaría a ser una ley física basada en un teorema matemático representando ciertas condiciones.
Spin de los electrones y momento angular orbital.
La confirmación de la existencia del Spin del electrón vino del experimento Stern-Gerlach y de la denominada estructura fina de las líneas del espectro del hidrógeno.
La configuración electrónica indicada anteriormente es coherente con el Principio de Pauli, la existencia del Spin o momento angular intrínseco de los electrones y la interacción Spin-órbita –como la estructura fina del hidrógeno. Ver página de HyperPhysics * sobre el Spin electrónico.
El signo del Spin parece deberse simplemente a si el momento angular orbital tiene el mismo sentido que el momento magnético del electrón debido al Spin es contrario al mismo. En consecuencia, los valores positivo y negativo del Spin se deberán a la interacción Spin-órbita.
Desde otra perspectiva, el origen del Spin seguramente estará relacionado con la barrera energética de estabilidad que se produce en la creación de los electrones, y que indudablemente pertenece a la naturaleza intrínseca del electrón.
Tunnel effect or leap between electron orbits
If the nucleus of the atom acquires energy by absorbing a photon, it will change the structure of the generated gravito-magnetic field, as well as the points of equilibrium where the electrons can exist and move about. Hence, at times when the imbalance is greater than the energy barrier of stability of the electrons, the mass of the electrons will vanish into electromagnetic energy, until the half-fold, loops or curls that make up the electron mass will once again create, reaching a new point of orbital equilibrium.
Therefore, it is not possible to follow the electron motion between orbits, and Modern Physics talks about electrons as leaping between orbits in the structure of the atom and about the movement of electron clouds.
Free electrons and molecular bonds
Electrons can also create between different atoms, forming covalent, ionic or metallic bonds.
They equally move like stable subatomic particles with mass by means of sliding like a slipknot in the classic vacuum or reticular structure of matter or global aether.
In these cases, they are free electrons because they are able to leave the space of the atom or molecule. From the point of view of Global Mechanics, what has happened is either that the variations of energy of the atomic nucleus provoke changes in the spatial localization of the relaxation points of the transversal torsion of global aether, or that the relaxation is not necessary anymore.
Likewise, the electron motion in exterior space, or classic vacuum, shows that they have a certain stability, and therefore there must be an energy barrier –minimum of energy– for which the electron breaks up –decays– into photons. In addition, it is possible that the more kinetic energy they possess the more stable they will be.
The stability of the electron will affect the configuration of the orbitals in the atom, since it will delay the elastic adjustments of the whole atom. Evidently, this characteristic of the electrons contributes to a greater spatial margin of the spheroid shape of their orbits.
Simple physics experiment.
In the example of the slipknot with a hair, one can see how easily the knot slides.
Now, for the case of electrons, let us think that the slipknot is a half-knot, which is created with a bend or crack in the straw of a refreshing drink.
Intuitively, we can see how this bend will only occur above a minimum energy of transversal turn on said straw. Otherwise, the straw will preserve its cylindrical shape.
The electrons –or the bend in the plastic straw in our example – will have the same resistance or energy barrier to disappear than it had to appear.
We have just discovered another one of the possible characteristics of the filaments of global aether, that is, they will have a tubular nature, though it will not be completely homogeneous due to the vertices of the cubic cells of the three-dimensional net.
As we know from the photoelectric effect, the electron will have greater speed and greater kinetic energy the greater the energy of the photon absorbed by the atom is, always above a necessary minimum of energy. Without said minimum energy, no electron will outflow, no matter how much we increase the radiation intensity.
A recent experiment in the limits of the photoelectric effect carried out by German scientists show that an absorbed photon could produce the expulsion of more than one electron; in other words, it seems that in this case, the nucleus of the atom –and not the electron– absorbs the photon.