María José T. Molina

Theory of Global Equivalence


Mass and specific gravity or relative density

The definition of specific gravity or relative density is the proportion between the densities of two substances. The relative density will be related to the gravity and the electromagnetic field in the atomic distances.

2.b.1.a) Gravity in the atomic distances. Mass and specific gravity or relative density

Gravity is provoked by tension of the longitudinal curvature in the reticular structure of matter or globine. Consequently, in short distances the force of gravity will depend on the three-dimensional shape of the mentioned reticular structure; which will also be determined by the presence of mass.

On another hand, the concept of mechanic energy in atomic distances is not as useful as in the movement of the bodies, even if the Law of the Conservation of Energy stays in a closed system, the concepts of potential gravitational energy and gravitational kinetic energy will be affected by the movement and space location of globine itself, as we discuss in the online book of Law of Global Gravity.

In the section about the electronic configuration within the new theory of the global atom of this online book we will analyze together the mass, the electromagnetic energy and force of gravity in atomic distances. Logically it will also affect the molecular structure and the mass and specific gravity or relative density; even though many other factors exist, as the molecular cohesion or typical intermolecular bonds of solids.

The specific gravity or specific mass is a relative measurement of an element density and will depend on the concentration of mass by unit of volume for each element. The mentioned concentration of mass will be affected by the three-dimensional molecular structure and mass number of atoms.

At the same time the molecular bonds mainly depend on the characteristics of the electromagnetic field, but this field tends to annul itself between the positive and negative charges of the atoms and ions; so that the gravity in atomic distances becomes more important than the correspondent to its quantitative relation with the electromagnetic field.

We will have to wait for the definition of the electromagnetic energy and see how it is created and what the mass is, so we are able to better understand the complete model of the gravitational field and the specific gravity or relative density.

Nevertheless it is convenient to bring forward two important concepts about matter’s reticular structure that supports the gravitational force in atomic distances.

The configuration of the atomic nucleus, of its electrons, the molecular structure itself and the specific gravity or relative density will be affected by the two following phenomenon:

  • Gravity’s repulsive force

    This phenomenon is produced near the atomic nucleus; when the mass of the neutron separates the elastic filaments of globine’s three-dimensional reticules, it obliges the mentioned filaments to become concaves in regard to the neutron itself.

    In other words, due to the tension of the longitudinal curvature, the gravitational force will operate towards the exterior because of the convexity; that means the sense of the spatial vector in the direction of the gravitational force has been inverted; this it is usually shown with an arrow on top of the affected magnitudes.

    The force of gravity changes its sign and, when changing, there will be an inflexion point where it is annulled. So now, it will not be necessary to use the uncertainty principle of the Quantum Mechanics theory to explain why the electrons do not fall in the nucleus of the atom.

    Regardless the previous paragraph, as we will see in this online book when explaining what electrons are, the meaning of its orbits and the mechanisms of their jumps between orbits; electrons do not fall to the nucleus of the atom because its mass has a partially different nature than the mass of the neutrons or protons and its movement has unusual characteristics.

    Repulsive force of gravity  Repulsive force of gravity

    In the case of homogenous dissolutions in liquids, the dissolved element will have to expand because of the repulsive gravity, so even if it is small, it will exist because of the additive property of the forces of gravity, although the distribution of the electromagnetic field on the molecular level of both liquids can also be important.

    Another effect of repulsive gravity is the general tendency of liquids to have a smaller density than solids and, as a result, smaller specific gravity or relative density than the solids and bigger than gases, referring to the same element.

    A similar line of argument justifies volume of gasses and the pressure for a specific temperature. By playing with the mentioned variables we manage to vary the density and the specific gravity of gases; this aspect is important when conducting them through pipes.

  • Restrained force of gravity

    It is vector modulation of the gravitational force because of the twists of globine’s reticular structure.

    The mass does not only have gravitational effect when provoking a big increase in the tension of the longitudinal curvature but also is associated to the electromagnetic energy because it is made up of curls or whirlpools of globine itself.

    Restrained force of gravity  Restrained force of gravity

    As we can see in this figure, the twists of globine will also provoke an inversion of the sense of the force of gravity that will become a force of repulsion or held back force from a force of attraction, in very short distances.

    The held back forces of gravity will have relevant effects on the configuration of the atomic nucleus and molecules. As we will see later on, the electrons suppose a twist in the globine, similar to the one in the figure.

    If the temperature is associated in some way with the electromagnetic field, the pressure will be with the hold back gravity and, to a less extent, to the repulsive gravity. Although in such an elastic model, all the forces are interrelated and tend to balance themselves.

Note that up until now we have not introduced the electromagnetic interaction, which together with the normal gravitational interaction and its vector modulation by the two reasons I pointed out, will determine the basic atomic structure, the molecular and eventually, the density and specific gravity or specific mass of the materials.

A significant aspect is that these changes or modulation of the gravitational force could mean that the Giga-Chron experiment is always correct, and generalize the validity of the fundamental equation of the Global Equivalence Theory.

[ G * g = c² * h * R * n ]

Furthermore, the analysis of the new atom model will mainly deal with the delimitation of the globudesic lines of the balanced points in respect to all the current forces.


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