2.b.1.a) Gravity at the atomic distances. Mass and specific gravity or relative density

Gravity is provoked by the tension of the longitudinal curvature in the reticular structure of matter or globine. Consequently, at short distances the force of gravity will depend on the three-dimensional shape of said reticular structure; which in itself will be determined by the presence of mass.

On another hand, the concept of mechanical energy at atomic distances is not as useful as in the case of the movement of bodies. Although the Law of Conservation of Energy is maintainedwithin a closed system, the concepts of potential gravitational energy and gravitational kinetic energy will be affected by the movement and spatial location of globine itself, as is discussed in the online book on the Law of Global Gravity.

In the section on electron configuration within the new theory of the global atom of this online book we will analyze the mass, the electromagnetic energy and force of gravity at atomic distances, all together. Logically, it will also affect the molecular structure and the mass and specific gravity or relative density; even though many other factors exist, such as molecular cohesion or typical intermolecular bonds of solids.

Specific gravity or specific mass is a relative measurement of the density of an element and will depend on the concentration of mass per unit of volume for each element. Said concentration of mass will be affected by the three-dimensional molecular structure and mass number of the atoms.

At the same time, the molecular bonds mainly depend on the characteristics of the electromagnetic field, but this field tends to cancel itself out between the positive and negative charges of the atoms and ions. In this way, the gravity at atomic distances becomes more important than its normal quantitative relation with the electromagnetic field.

We will have to wait for the definition of electromagnetic energy and see how it is created and what mass is, in order to better understand the complete model of the gravitational field and the specific gravity, specific mass or relative density.

Nevertheless it is convenient to state in advance two important concepts regarding the reticular structure of matter that supports the gravitational force at atomic distances.

The configuration of the atomic nucleus and of its electrons, as well as that of the molecular structure itself and the specific gravity or specific mass, will be affected by the two following phenomena:

  • Repulsive force of gravity

    This phenomenon is produced near the atomic nucleus; when the mass of the neutron separates the elastic filaments of a three-dimensional reticule of globine, it forces said filaments to become concave with respect to the neutron itself.

    In other words, due to the tension of the longitudinal curvature, the gravitational force will operate towards the exterior becauseof the convexity. This means the sense – or orientation – of the spatial vector in the direction of the gravitational force has been inverted; this it is usually represented by a little arrow on top of the affected magnitudes.

    The force of gravity changes its sign and, when this happens, there will be an inflexion point where it is cancelled out. In this way, it will no longer be necessary to use the uncertainty principle from the theory of Quantum Mechanics to explain why electrons do not fall into the nucleus of the atom.

    Regardless of the previous paragraph – as we will see in this online book when explaining what electrons are, the meaning of their orbits and the mechanisms of their jumps between these orbits – electrons do not fall into the nucleus of the atom because their mass has a slightly different nature than the mass of neutrons or protons and their movement has unusual characteristics.

    Repulsive force of gravity
    Repulsive force of gravity

    In the case of homogenous dissolutions in liquids, the dissolved element will tend to expand due to the effect of repulsive gravity. Even if it is small, it will exist because of the additive property of the forces of gravity, although the distribution of the electromagnetic field at the molecular level of both liquids can also be significant.

    Another effect of repulsive gravity will be the general tendency of liquids to have a lower density than solids and, as a result, a specific gravity or specific mass smaller than solids and bigger than gases, for one same element.

    A similar line of argument justifies the volume of gasses and the pressure for a specific temperature. By playing around with these variables one can manage to vary the density and the specific gravity of gases; this aspect is important when conducting them through pipes.

  • Braking force of gravity

    It is a vector modulation of the gravitational force due to twists in the reticular structure of globine.

    Mass does not only have a gravitational effect when provoking a big increase in the tension of the longitudinal curvature, but is also associated with electromagnetic energy because it is made up of curls or whirlpools of globine itself.

    Restrained force of gravity
    Restrained force of gravity

    As we can see in this figure, the twists in globine will also provoke a reversal of the sense or orientation of the force of gravity, which will go from being a force of attraction to being a force of repulsion or braking force, at very short distances.

    The braking force of gravity will have relevant effects on the configuration of the atomic nucleus and of molecules. As we will see later on, the electrons imply a twist in the globine, similar to the one in the figure.

    If temperature is associated in some way with the electromagnetic field, pressure will be associated with the braking gravity and, to a less extent, with the repulsive gravity. Although in such an elastic physical model, all the forces are interrelated and tend to balance themselves out.

Note that up until now we have not introduced the electromagnetic interaction, which – together with the normal gravitational interaction and its vector modulation due to the two reasons previously stated – will determine the basic atomic structure, the molecular structure and eventually, the density and specific gravity or specific mass of the materials.

A significant aspect is that these changes or modulations of the gravitational force could make the equality of the Giga-Chron experiment always be correct, and could generalize the validity of the fundamental equation of the Global Equivalence Theory.

[ G * g = c² * h * R * n ]

Gravitational Law of Equivalence
g = [ c² * h * R / G ] * n

Furthermore, the analysis of the new atom model will mainly deal with the demarcation of the globudesic lines of the equilibrium points with respect to all the current forces.

2.b.1.b) Indirect gravity

When reading the article “ScienceShot: Welcome to the Universe-Wide Web” which begins by saying “Astronomers have found evidence that galaxies are connected via an enormous cosmic web of intergalactic gas that helps many of them stay prolific star creators.”, I suddenly thought of the concept or idea of indirect gravity, whilst trying to understand why said conexions form.

It is true that the result of the forces of gravity in the two studied galaxies pushes the dust clouds to form these great structures – but indirect gravity could accelerate this process, not only in the case of these particular structures but also in the case of other macro-structures observed in the universe.

Indirect gravity
Indirect gravity

It is an obvious consequence of the gravitational model of Global Mechanics, but I had never before thought of it because it is, without a doubt, an extremely weak force when compared to direct gravity. Nevertheless, given its high number of components, it could provide half the force which up until now has been attributed solely to gravity.

If gravity is a consequence of the longitudinal tension of the filaments of the three-dimensional structure of matter or globine, it is implicitly stated in the model that the size of the cells of this net will not only depend on the direct effect of mass produced by the gravitational field, but also on the size of the adjacent cells. The name of indirect gravity comes from this, as the size of the adjacent cells will themselves depend on the global gravitational field, with its own direct and indirect effects.

In short, what produces the longitudinal tension is the gradual decrease of the abovementioned size with distance, due to the elasticity of the filaments. This decrease will be a consequence of the elastic effect of the filaments which directly join the cell with the mass which produces the field, as well as producing all the filaments or possible paths between the cell and the mass – within an angle which does not cancel out the resulting indirect forces.

From this point of view, gravity is not configured as a single force which tends to join two masses, but rather as the result of a multitude of forces, where not all the directions pass through the masses. One would have to measure the aforementioned elastic effects using mathematical models, in order to analyze the possibility of asymmetric effects in particular situations.

Another aspect of indirect gravity is that its importance could have more relevance at atomic distances. One could think that if indirect effects do indeed exist upon a mass, in the case of a gravitational field formed by two or more masses, these effects could have a certain degree of asymmetry.