4.d) Evolutionism and mechanisms of genetic variability

After accepting evolutionism it is necessary to clarify some similar terms that sometimes have specific connotations. I am referring to terms of procedure, methods, processes, and mechanisms of evolution used, at least, normally by current science within evolutionism or the generally accepted stance regarding the theory of evolution.

Some terms are very similar and almost synonyms but, normally, I used them with certain special characteristics while talking about evolutionary genetics. Normally, I am thinking about human genes and human gene expression but I believe the ideas are valid for, at least, any evolution of life with sexual differentiation.

These concepts represent instrumental and functional relations between macro-biology and microbiology and between genotype and their genetic expression or phenotype.

An important note is that not always all the methods or mechanisms of genetic variability are possible.

4.d.1. Concept of procedures, methods, processes and mechanisms

  • Procedures and methods of evolutionary genetics

    These two concepts are almost the same regarding genetic variability; the first one could include various methods. For example, sexual differentiation, verification of the genetic information, natural selection characterizes as procedures, methods and even as a mechanism in evolutionary genetics.

    Normally procedures and methods are related to ideas or immaterial concepts.

  • Process

    I consider them as a set of activities with a common finality.

  • Mechanism of genetic variations

    A mechanism of genetic variations would be a singular process or activity that has an immediate finality or purpose.

A basic outline can be presented as follows: A procedure that includes one or various methods, consisting of a group of activities or processes formed by an undetermined number of related mechanisms, normally in a sequential way.

Likewise, nothing prevents various independent or conceptually different procedures or methods from acting simultaneously in the dynamic of evolutionism. In fact, in evolutionism, it is known that a mechanism of evolution (or method) exists which acts a posteriori in many cases, so-called Natural Selection, collaborating with the other procedures and evolutionary methods.

 

 

4.d.2. Glossary on genetic variability

The evolutionary mechanisms allow evolutionism to be explained in a way that agrees with scientific method. Natural selection Is not the only evolutionary method.

James D. Watson (Public domain image)
James d. Watson

Among the most important evolutionary mechanisms are the following:

  • Procedures and methods of evolutionary genetics

    • Trial and error

      The simplest of all the evolutionary methods; in principle, it is typical of microorganisms who have lots of descendants in each generation and based on the subsequent method of natural selection.

    • Natural selection

      Strictly and exclusively speaking, it would act as a single, effective evolutionary method, so random modifications alone would not achieve the evolution seen in living beings. In the case of accepting the random character of the modifications, the previous method of trial and error would be more general than natural selection, since this does not always operate.

      It does not seem to have much relevance in the evolution of human beings, except in the very long, rather than long, term. Nor is it guaranteed that it would act in the future, unless we take it tautologically.

      In any case, natural selection can be characterized as an exogenous verification method to the evolutionary system in strict sense or the system producing the genetic modifications, because it acts a posteriori.

    • Exhaustive check of gene expression

      Verification of the results foreseen by the genetic modifications which have been carried out. In certain cases, living organisms can verify the effect of replacing, for example, one protein with another. If this verification is satisfactory in terms of the functionality of the new evolution mechanism and there is no risk of side effects, the deletion of the genetic information generated by the first protein could be done without major problems since the assurance objective will be completely covered.

    • Partial trial of gene expression

      When an evolutionary system gets complicated and contains innumerous interrelations, an exhaustive verification of the effects caused by a small change will not be possible, it must be strictly limited to a more or less extensive but never totally completed verification. The genetic modification will carry a greater or lesser risk inasmuch as the range of possible effects of the genetic modification has been covered. The risks of this method are very well-known by informatics programmers.

    • Primary sexual differentiation or endogenic sexual differentiation

      Due to the development of more complex beings, the risk of the partial verification method is increasing and will not guarantee the viability of new living beings.

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      The search for new methods to explain the evolutionism in a satisfactory manner is required. One possible method could be sexual differentiation, in such a way that one of the sexes could spend all its energy in developing and verifying new functions. This could be the case of the evolution of bees, since there is a sexual differentiation but an endogamy pairing. Although the justification of this evolutionary method is very intuitive, we should consider the need of every human being to sleep every day in order to rearrange his memory and keep his body rested. It could also be about keeping an intact copy while the other one has genetic modifications.

    • Sexual differentiation

      The main advantages of this evolutionary method have been described in detail in the point about the objectives of evolution.

    • External verification of the genetic information or its functionality (VGI)

      A detailed explanation of this evolutionary method has been included when talking about dominant and recessive genes in the example relating to the Significance and expression of genetic variations: the example of the technological development of brakes in the automobile industry.

    • Security copy or archive of genetic information

      The genetic code prior to the genetic modification can be kept, to a greater or lesser degree, in order to, depending on the real result of the genetic variations, have the possibility of returning to the initial configuration of the genetic information. Another advantage of keeping the old genetic code is the possibility of using it to different modifications, what would be equivalent to having a program or function library.

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  • Processes
    • Creation and design of genetic modifications (genetic research at cell level)
    • Initial development of the new living being
    • Growth of the living being
    • Choice of the partner or sexual selection
    • Execution in pre-established structures.

      Certain actions performed by living beings can be determined by the way in which they are carried out. This way is, at the same time, related to the conditions or manner associated with the received genetic information itself. This will also be discussed in some detail later. A typical example could be the decision making progress in the logical processes of the brain.

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  • Mechanisms of genetic variations
    • Operational conditions of the genetic information
    • Creation of random operations
    • A particular activity of the decision making process
    • Feedback

      In principle, nothing will prevent a genetic modification from getting associated with its age or effectiveness during certain generations.

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