GENERAL THEORY CONDITIONAL EVOLUTION OF LIFE
The objectives of life ,the evolution of man and the design of the genome of living beings throughout time: guarantee and certainty
IV.2. Objectives of life and theory of evolution of man
Setting aside the purely philosophical position, the final objective of Life is unknown; however, we can indeed analyze some of the instrumental objectives in which logic points out to us that they exist or should exist in general.
On the other hand, the theory of evolution of man in particular helps us to reach a better general understanding of the evolution of life.
Without trying to be exhaustive or include all of the implications of each of the following objectives, I am going to discuss those that I consider to be the most relevant and basic by being present not only in the evolution of man but rather in all of the vital impulse systems. In addition, I am going to make the considerations that, on one hand, support or help to explain the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life as a whole and, on the other hand, those that express contradictions or limitations of other theories of evolution.
It is worth disclosing that there is a great conceptual interrelation between the discussed objectives as well as between the arguments and examples used; nonetheless, in order to facilitate its presentation and understanding I had considered convenient to separate them into the following objectives.
In the biological evolution of man and, certainly, in all types of living beings and in vital impulse systems, we will find the classic concept of the supremacy of the species or of the system over the individual or particular element. In other words, the continuity of the species prevails over that of the individual. This vital conditioning explains the strange behavior of many living beings, justified by the necessity of guaranteeing and perpetuating the species. They can even come to killing themselves in order to serve as food for the offspring in its initial moments.
"The genome of rice... between 42,000 and 63,000 genes
...surpasses any animal described until now in number of genes.
...The main reason is that close to 70% of the genes of rice are duplicated: many ancestral genes made copies of themselves, and the copy was inserted into another part of the genome.
Initially, those two copies of the same gene are a mere redundancy, but later they can gradually digress, and one of them can acquire slightly different functions...."
El País 25-04-2002.
In genetics, the total certainty of the viability of the incorporated modifications to the genome is not always necessary. Sometimes it will be sufficient with a high degree of probability; however, if the genetic variation affects one of the complex and vital functions of the new being, it would be interesting to be able to attain total certainty.
A solution would be to simulate the operation of the system under the new parameters and relations before incorporating them to the genetic information to transmit, this way avoiding any circumstantial variation that may cause an error.
However, the simulation method has a limitation; in very complex functions, it is not possible to simulate all possibilities, given that these can be almost infinite. It is essential to have other methods that allow maximum guarantee of the viability of the new being; after all of the accumulated work that represents the existence of an advanced living being, all guarantees seem small.
A major example would be the biological evolution of man.
DNA strand, genes and chromosomes
Here is where one of the fundamental novelties of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life appears because it presents one of the functions of the sexual differentiation in reproduction, giving a powerful reason to its own existence, the function of guarantee or certainty.
In the biological evolution of man and any type of living being, the fact of having two sources of genetic information when it comes to developing the living being poses in the section of "improvement of efficiency" the problem of how to decide which source to use in each case.
The need for guarantee offers a coherent explanation. The viability of the new being with genetic modifications would be ensure if there is a backup copy of the genome that can be used in case of failure of the new modifications.
"As the scientists from the Centre for Demographic and Population Genetics in the University of Texas (USA) have explained: "Men suffer more genetic mutations because they produce more sperm than women produce ova"
El País 12-05-1993. Nature
Therefore, one of the main functions of the sexual differentiation could be the fact that one of the sexes provides an intact copy of its genetic packet. It is still interesting that in many species, the female ova completely and definitively forms in the relatively initial moments of development of the individuals. On the contrary, this does not occur in males.
Once again, the most well-known clear example is the evolution of man.
In similar processes, even much more simple than evolution of man, like the development of a complex computer program, there are always backup copies in case the introduced changes do not manage to obtain the anticipated result. Sexual differentiation in the case of evolution of man could be similar to those computer programs developed by multiple programmers.
"The rate of masculine mutation is twice the rate of female mutation, which indicates that the men are the cause of the majority of the hereditary diseases, but the evolutionary progress is also produced in them"
El País 19-02-2001. Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
"Plants that contradict the laws of Mendel. Some genetically defective plants in both lines, they have, however, some normal descendants, as though an unknown mechanism, based on a mysterious backup copy, had recuperated the correct sequence in its genes. Spectacular, marvelous, strange, unexpected are some of the descriptions for this discovery.
...A scientist believes that the mechanism can also occur in people.
...The experts think that there is a backup copy of RNA for all of the genomes.
...The discovery presents a puzzle for the evolutionary theory..."
El País 30-03-2005. Nature
It is possible that there is a full, or an almost entire, backup copy of the genome mentioned in the previous paragraph. Nevertheless, it is not strictly necessary for GTCEL proposals because, initially, nothing prevents that when a modification to the genetic code is carried out it cannot be incorporated maintaining, at the same time, the previous code. However, in highly related functions it probably does not exit so much flexibility in the development of the new living being.
Without a doubt, the technical and scientific progress of biology and genetics will have the last words on this matter of guarantee and certainty in the evolution of living beings and the particular case of the evolution of man; although, as always, there will always be the two methods or more, keeping in mind the enormous casuistry present in nature.
"...The genes of animals are, on average, larger and more complicated than those of plants. Each gene can correct itself in various ways…, and the evolution (in its most subtle aspects) seems to have played more with the alteration of those corrections (splicing) than with the duplication of whole genes"
El País 05-04-2002.
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