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Sexual differentiation and VGI method

A second characteristic of sexual differentiation, complementary and much more powerful than the previous one, allows Nature to decide in each case which of the two genetic sources it should use; in other words, how to take maximum advantage of the existence of that double source of genetic information with the sexual differentiation.

Indeed, sexual differentiation offers the existence of two different sources of genetic information. The fundamental advantage is that VIG method verifies the genetic information when is essential to avoid errors. The verification takes place, even in human evolution, by comparing or filtering the two sources.

In the theory of evolution, the truly central aspect is not the particular mechanism Nature uses to carry out the analysis and comparison of the genetic variation of the two genetic sources with sexual differentiation but the concept of the utility of this method, that we will denominate VGI method (Verification of the Genetic Information.)

Let us see some examples to show the advantages of sexual differentiation:

  • Computer spaceships

    Errors in spaceships or other expensive machines can suppose a high material and personal cost; therefore, we would seek the certainty, as far as possible, that no error will take place.

    If, when doing the complicated computer calculations, we used three identical computers, we would be able to verify the results of the operations and be sure they are correct. In the improbable, although possible case, that one of them failed, we could assume well enough the result of the other two, because it would be much more improbable that two computers failed simultaneously and with identical deviation.

    We have just made a verification of the information between 3 different sources; however, nature only has two sexes available for the moment.

  • Complex calculations

    An example with two sources of intelligence could be asking two people the result of a relatively complex calculation or an exact date of an event. If the two people tell the same number or date, we could be almost sure that both have given the correct answer; because, although can be relatively easy to be mistaken in a complex question, to commit exactly the same error is much more difficult. Of course, in those cases of inconsistency some alternative must be available to choose a particular answer.

  • Neural networks

    Before, we have commented sexual differentiation, as in human evolution, has only two sexes when we put the example of the three computers. Now we are going to suppose that some Nature functions in human evolution uses two billion little computers or neurons, half of which has been designed with the genetic information of an ancestor and the rest of neurons with the genetic information of the other ancestor.

    With this configuration, it is possible to apply the method of Verification of the Genetic Information and to work without its application. For example, a human cognitive process could decide on the bases of the first one hundred thousand answers. It would not be impossible that a cerebral operation in some occasions responds to the design of our example of human evolution.

    This last example presents numerous advantages with respect to the pure selection of one or another inherited genetic code. First, it allows us to take advantage of the two sets of genetic information. Secondly, the same group of cells, I say cells for expositive clarity solely, serve for different cognitive functions, even cognitive functions of different nature.

    In fact, in human evolution it is as if the operability of the genetic information of both ancestors would change, depending on the different filters or conditions applied, remaining the whole potential at the same time.

The mechanism to carry out the method of Verification of the Genetic Information (VGI) of sexual differentiation can be as simple as to verify if both genes or functional genetic code produce the same protein or not. However, it will not always be possible to maintain this compatibility, if the VGI method is carried out in one of the new being’s initial processes, it is possible that, once an organ or group of cells are built with certain characteristics, the option of maintaining different characteristics is lost.

Consequently, sexual differentiation appears as a necessity of Nature when arriving at a certain degree of complexity of the development of living beings.

Admitted the importance of method VGI and sexual differentiation, it is not to surprising the relevance of the conscious or unconscious mechanisms in sexual selection.

Insofar as what is possible the method of Verification of Genetic Information will work maintaining the compatibility of different filters or conditions on cognitive processes and, consequently, the maximum potential of the two genetic sources. Firstly, it will be easier to maintain the indicated operative flexibility in characteristics associated with continuous variables than with discreet variables. Bearing in mind that what we identify as one characteristic, in genetics will often be a group of somewhat complex characteristics due to the different scales in which we move, macroscopic and microscopic.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

"In any combination, each parent passes on only half of his or her genes to their daughter whose olfactory preferences are defined exclusively by the combination of genes that the father has passed on. The other half, that the father has but the daughter does not, is irrelevant. And the mother’s genes also…"

El País 23-01-2002. Nature Genetics

For example, the height of a building, a continuous variable, depends on many factors such as the depth and surface of the cement, the type of terrain, quality of the different materials employed, etc.

Now, let show more examples to fully understand the VGI method and the advantages of sexual differentiation.

Relational intelligence Genetic information
Diagram of relational intelligence
  • Relational intelligence

    Another example is intelligence that is, without doubt, composed of multiple sub functions particular types of intelligence. To avoid unnecessary controversies, intelligence is to be understood as the ability to respond in the correct manner to an intelligence test, resulting in a continuous variable with a normal distribution of 100 as average and standard deviation that change according to the test taken.

    In the diagram, the intellectual potential associated with two genes is shown as a group, the term genes is used for clarity, however it could easily refer to diverse pieces of genetic code situated in different genes.

    Direct logic is composed of multiple sub functions or particular types of intelligence without a doubt.

    The gene or genetic code of progenitor A has a potential of 105 and 130 the gene of progenitor B, both having common cognitive functions equivalent to a potential of 90.

    If formal logic were a characteristic for which nature applies the VGI method, the potential of the descendant would be 90, while if it were not operative it would be 145. As you can see, these calculations are equivalents to those of the theory of groups as regards math intersection and addition.

  • Automobile brakes

    This example is fully explained in the Web page about dominant and recessive genes within sexual differentiation while talking about “evolution of cars”

  • Math example with letters

    The genetic code of a progenitor has the basic human cognitive functions: {a, b, c, d, e}.

    With sexual differentiation, if method of Verification of Genetic Information is applied and the genetic code of the other ancestor is {a, b, c}, the descendant will have the potential corresponding to the cognitive functions {a, b, c}. If VGI method were not applied would have the potential {a, b, c, d, e}

    Nevertheless, if VGI method is applied and the genetic code of the other ancestor is {a, f, g, h} the descendant will have the intellectual potential corresponding solely to the function {a}. On the opposite case, if VGI method were not operative would have the intellectual potential {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}

    This example is the simplest and the best to understand the differences with sexual differentiation and the pure Mendelian genetics significance. The next point shows how the two concepts, method VGI and Mendel's law interact.

     

     
  • Mendelian genetics

    To simplify, in the following diagram of Mendelian genetics and sexual differentiation we will assume that the genetic code of greater potential always includes a 100% of the potential associated with the other genetic code. I have also eliminated evolution, strictly speaking, of the genes or genetic codes that would always transmit genes with slightly greater potential to descendants.

    Method of Verification
    of Genetic Information (VGI)
    Method of Verification of Genetic Information (VGI)

    The column to the left shows the potential of the two progenitors associated with the genetic codes represented in the next column; the upper part with the application of the Verification of the Genetic Information method, and the lower without the application of this method.

    In accordance with our definitions, the potential of the progenitors is equal to the potential of the genetic code lesser potential when using the VGI method, and to the genetic code with the greater potential when not using this method.

    The third column graphically represents the four possible combinations of the progenitor's genes in accordance with Gregor Mendel's law.

    Lastly, in the column to the right are the potentials associated with the descendant's genes. The upper part is with the application of the Verification of the Genetic Information method and the lower is without its application.

It is worth pointing out that I am analyzing a specific method of evolution within sexual differentiation and I am not trying to generalize it at any time, although it could be very common. Likewise, indicating that whether the Verification of the Genetic Information method is applied or not, the genetic codes transmitted to the descendants will have the same potential, given that the VGI method, refers to the way of showing the potential of the individuals and not that of the genetic code.

The following consequences about Mendelian genetic combination and sexual differentiation can be inferred from the analysis of the previous diagram:

  • The inherited potential relate to the progenitors' two genes, without either of them acting as dominant or recessive genes as in Mendelian genetics. The behavior will be somewhat different of the Mendelian significance and will depend on the potential of the pair gene; the smaller gene will be significant when the VGI method is applied.

    This behavior will be relevant to the extent that the greater gene includes the gene with less potential. In other words, what will be truly significant is the intersection that we have seen in the figure of the math’s theory of groups; this situation can be observed when applying the VGI method for gene B of progenitor 1 given that is not the significant gene of descendent 3, and that it is of descendant 4.

  • In certain cases, the genetic potential fully maintains, depending on the operability of the specific functions that it carries out.

  • When the Verification of the Genetic Information method is applied:

    • There is a 50% probability that the descendants' potential will be the same as the lesser of the progenitor's potentials.

    • The maximum potential will be that of the second most powerful gene whenever it is not from the same progenitor with the most powerful gene; in this case, the maximum potential referred to will be equal to the second less powerful gene.

  • When the Verification of the Genetic Information method is not applied:
    • The descendants' potential has a 50% probability of being equal to that of the progenitor with the greater potential.
    • The minimum potential will be that of the second less powerful gene whenever it is not from the same progenitor with the least powerful gene of all; in this case, the minimum potential referred to will be equal to the second most powerful gene.

These consequences about Mendelian genetic combination and sexual differentiation may allow us to check empirically the real existence of this evolutionary method and indirectly the theory that supports it, through the corresponding statistical analysis of specific cases of sexual differentiation in which I think that Nature does or does not apply the VGI method.

I believe that it particularly uses VGI method for the characteristics measured by an intelligence test and for what I call math memory, a memory with almost absolute security.

Keeping in mind that, as we have seen, for intelligence, Nature constructs organs according to both genetic sources, and in the case of not requiring certainty of responses (the opposite of intelligence in strict sense of the word), we would find ourselves with intuition. As we know, intuition is more powerful than intelligence and less reliable, and it will depend on the quantitative difference between the two genetic codes; more exactly of the difference between the intersection and the addition of the potential of both genetic sources.

For linguistic memory and for musical abilities I think that the VGI method is not applied; these could however be useful for empirical verification if we had appropriate indicators.

Finally, it is convenient to mention here that the EDI Study on evolution and design of intelligence with sexual differentiation empirically confirms the existence of Verification of the Genetic Information method and an additional hypothesis relating sexual selection.