3. PREVIOUS EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES
In general, science has changed a lot in the past century (20th century) and, yet, regarding the theory of evolution or evolutionary theory it seems strange that it has not changed significantly.
Although there are small updates, the generally accepted theory of evolution is the Darwinian presented in the work The Origin of the Species in 1859. This evolutionary theory consists of what surely all of us have heard about or studied.
According to the evolutionary theory of Darwin, individuals present random variations and evolution comes about by natural selection. These variations are also categorized as random mutations in order to point out their supposedly unguided nature.
The Darwinian Theory punched the evolutionary theory proposed by Lamarck, according to which the traits acquired during the life of the individuals passed on to the descendants. The classical example is that of the evolution of the giraffes’ neck. According to the evolutionary theory of Lamarck, the first giraffes, by constant stretching of their necks by means of obtaining food, managed to lengthen them and subsequently breeding descendants with necks a little longer. As for Darwin, he maintained that random giraffes born with longer necks were those that had been better adapted than the average, survived better, and bred more descendants.
Among the theories of evolution, strictly speaking, we find the laws of Mendel (1865) about genetic inheritance, whose fundamental elements are the combination of genes and their dominant or recessive trait. Although, regarding the indicated date, it is worth pointing out that at the end of the 19th century, this theory remained absolutely anonymous and not exactly because Mendel didn’t try to publish it as is claimed in some realms.
Therefore, in short, the ideas presented by Lamarck, Darwin and Mendel make up the classical body of the concepts as regards biological evolution or evolution of the species. Nonetheless, it is also worth pointing out the existence of theories derived from the previous one and other theories of religious nature.
Among the arguments in this book, it should be noted that today we know facts and experiments demonstrating:
Evolution of a foam type, i.e., close species communicates through some individuals, so that it does not follow the typical tree structure, which biologists thought in the past, nor is there a missing link.
There is inheritance of acquired characteristics.
The answer to this knowledge by orthodox doctrine is no longer adaptation of Darwin's theory, as occurred during the twentieth century, but it is to make concepts relative and blatant changing of names or terms to avoid recognizing past mistakes; then, its big mistake was the design of the books of general education of the population.
Now, if there is inheritance of acquired characteristics is not the evolution propounded by Lamarck but molecules inherited, although different from DNA molecules.
It seems Darwin was an expert in genetics and epigenetics, and he distinguished between heritable DNA and other molecules. Moreover, alleles are no longer different versions of genes for small chemical variations, but any version of a gene that fulfills a similar function, although the mutation of a gene to its allele would be virtually impossible.
Doing some archeology of science to understand what is happening with theories of evolution and origin of man, we see that orthodox doctrine has not changed the definition of the Royal Spanish Academy -RAE-, which says:
f. Biol. Doctrine where the traits that characterize a living being are set in the course of its development, without being established in the fertilized egg.
Epigenetics * is no longer gene expression by environmental conditions –such as the above RAE definition– but any gene expression, even if it comes from the previous generation genetic information, but not coming from DNA. It seems that the intention is to incorporate mutations produced in the life of the previous generation without recognizing that Lamarck was right and, incidentally, recognizing and explaining that DNA and other molecules transmit genetic information.
Either way, inheritance of modifications of genetic information produced in the life of the previous generation relates to the phrases the organ creates the function and the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
We must remind the scientific community that Darwin's theory was never proven; especially now that it has been shown correct Lamarck's theory.
However, both agree as theories of the origin of man because they are evolutionary theories.
Let us go on now to carry out a critical analysis of the most important evolutionary theories without expecting a negative valuation in any case.
Likewise, a brief description of these evolutionary theories is in the addendum of the theories of the human origin.