4.c) Genetic variability

The main reason of proposing a complete new theory of evolution is the different approach to the origin and sources of the genetic variability.

While for the Darwinian Theory of evolution, the genetic variability is due to random mutations, for the Conditional Evolution it is not possible this character of the genetic variations, bearing in mind the complexity of the living beings and their quick evolution time line.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

...the behavior of animals is always logical because it is the product of an evolutionary strategy...

El País 02-10-2002. Congreso Nacional de Etología

These ideas about complexity in evolutionary biology are explained in the objectives of the evolution section.

Current genetic regulation is something similar to when modifying a computer programme without knowing its structure, functions or even the programme language. It is not my intention to over exaggerate the risks that may be involved in genetic engineering, they undoubtedly exist, but I think that they are minimal.

When a programme is modified, it may stop working, but it is difficult to create a computer virus by accident. With random genetic variability or an accident the same thing could occur, the new being would not be viable but that is all. Genetic problems designed deliberately for bacteriological war would be a different issue.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

Sydney Brenner
Nobel Prize in Medicine 2002

"We know almost nothing about the human genome."

El País 18-09-2003.

Likewise, this supposes that, the more that is known about how DNA works, the easier it will be to be convinced that it is impossible for systems so complete and perfect to have arisen as a result of random genetic variability.

In fact, it seems that the random character of genetic variability is due to not understanding their cause and full functionality or the way they really work, so, the unknown is random for pure conventionalism.

 

4.c.1. Concept, origin and sources of genetic variability

There is a problem in the terminology of evolutionary biology along with genetic variability because it normally has the meaning that uses the Darwin theory of evolution.

The first precision about genetic information is that I am referring to the genetic information that has been or will transmit to progenitors or descendants.

GloFish - Genetically modified
Danio Rerio (Public domain image)
GloFish - Genetically modified. Danio Rerio

This restriction is important given that all cells contain an individual’s complete genetic code. It is possible that a genetic modification originates in a cell that does not have reproduction functions; the concept used here includes these modifications insofar as they end up moving to the reproductive system in any way possible.

Logically, in current science, the possibility that a method may exist it is not admitted.

Something else that needs to be clarified is the use of the expression changes in a gene or similar, that refers to expressions like modifications to genetic code or genetic information that is passed on to descendants or received from ancestors, to avoid repeating it too many times.

This practice will be avoided as far as possible but, sometimes, it simplifies the reasoning; I will even use it to refer to genetic information that could be situated in different genes, when this case is not relevant.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

The concealed face of the genome

…Nowadays it is very difficult to provide a precise definition of what a gene is.

…we have the genes that encode proteins from DNA and the RNA genes that do not encode proteins.

…The RNA molecules are pieces of a jigsaw puzzle that make up an unknown image.

El País 10-09-2003.

Normally, we think of genetic information and genetic variability as something that is very complicated: DNA’s tridimensional molecular structure, etc. It is therefore useful to point out that the idea used here is perfectly similar to other much more commonly concepts that are probably more useful when following complex ideas.

Finally, the study of the genetic variability is a functional analysis and not in its chemical or biochemical composition; therefore, in this sense the genetic information can be assimilated to the following concepts or examples:

  • Source code of a computer program
  • Technical definitions buildings
  • Technical definitions of a car
  • User instructions of a computer program

 

 
 

4.c.2. Types of genetic variability

Let us see some of the multiples classifications of genetic modifications that can be done in evolutionary biology:

  • Genetic variations derived from the objectives of the evolutionary system
    • Improve the efficacy
      • Improvement characteristics of materials: new proteins
      • Rationalization and simplification of the structure of the genetic code.
      • Improve the functionality of any element of the genetic information.
    • Guaranty and security
      • To create different genetic variations to deal with changes in environment.
      • Associate the idea of structural genetic information to some of it, to know the consequences of any future change or variation.
      • Keep genetic code not operative for possible future utilization
    • Cohesion and compatibility
      • Associate the condition of verification of the genetic information with the genetic information of the other progenitor in the cases of sexual differentiation.
      • Balance development of genes with the complementary characters.
    • Optimization
      • To make risky modifications of genetic information relying in the mechanism of natural selection.
      • To make risky modifications of genetic information relying in the use of the method of Verification of the Genetic Information.
      • Genetic variations to improve the use of the resources
  • Depending on the methods of genetic evolution
    • Trial and error
    • Natural selection
    • Thorough testing
    • Partial testing
    • Initial endogenic sexual differentiation and other variants
    • Sexual differentiation
    • External verification of genetic information
    • Back-up or historical archives
  • Origin or cause of genetic variability
    • Accidental or random mutations/ directed
    • Internal / external (to the individual)
      The first would be the group of improvements made to the genetic code, produced as a consequence of the individual’s learning, working or life experience previous to the transmission of genetic information.
    • Endogenous (to the genetic system) / exogenous (environmental)
  • By the nature or expression of genetic variations
    • Operative code / not operative (genetic garbage –Not a very good term)
    • Discrete / continuous
    • Restrictive (Conditions of external verification...) / additive / special
    • Variations of genes with complementary character / independents / dependents.
    • Immediate / not immediate (confirmation needed in next generations)
    • Initial moments (of the new being) / posterior
    • Visible (macro scale) / not visible (micro scale)
      NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

      DNA dark matter comes to light.

      ...The first surprise is that the so-called “genetic garbage” has been incorrectly named: 80% of DNA turns out to have some kind of biochemical function. And nothing less than its 95% is involved in the regulation of conventional genes.

      El País 6-09-2012

  • By the mechanisms of genetic variability
    • Random / design
    • Predetermined random (random between fixed options) / Totally random
    • Simple / complex