4.b.3. Internal coherence and compatibility: evolution of the species

  • Isomorphism in the evolution of the species

    The first indication of compatibility of the genetic system in the origin and evolution of the species gives us the fact of the uniformity in its language: the DNA. A typical and more known case by all of us is that of the human genome. For this reason, it is interesting to think that all of the comments apply almost without exception to the human genome, helping us to understand the expressed ideas.


    A year after the official presentation of the rough sketch of the human genome...

    ...There is also in the human genome many proteins related to the defense system of the organism and, especially, a great number of repeated sequences and without a known function that make up 50% of the total (the genes would only represent 1.5%)...

    El País 20-02-2002.

    Any modification or improvement in the evolution of the species has to be compatible with the rest of the transmitted genome. There should be a set of genes or pieces of genetic code of the genotype that is very constant due to being common to a large quantity of vital processes and, whose modification would affect all of them, we can call this set a structural code. 

    The existence of random genetic variability or random mutations in the evolution of the species would mean that they would affect the structural code. The effects would be disastrous for the development of the new being; for which, in good logic, the genetic modifications generally cannot be random, especially in extremely complex cases of the evolution of the species, such as that of the human genome.

    The random method in the evolution of the species is always admissible if when the random mutations happen, or are allowed or created, within the specific processes and mechanisms, but in a controlled way; that is, nature is extending the range of possibilities but without affecting those functions that require uniformity and coherence.

    The existence in the evolution of the species of minimally uncontrolled random mutations in the genome by its nature should lead us to the existence of spiders with 4, 6 or more than 8 legs in nature but with all of the other traits of spiders; moreover, they should be born more or less continuously over time. It should be normal to find animals of the same species with different number of legs and humans with 3 arms, etc. Modern genetics is indeed acquiring this type of mutations in inferior animals.

    The coherence of the modifications has to also be achieved concerning the genetic information that the other parent can transmit. Sexual differentiation means (apart from other numerous considerations) and the Verification of Genetic Information method (VGI method) in particular, by its own definition, an instrument for achieving necessary uniformity and coherence between the two sources of genetic information. The observable isomorphism in the evolution of the species, especially of the most complex, as the case of the human genome would be, should be a common example.

  • Evolutionary leap such as the origin of new species

    An aspect related to coherence is the necessity for evolutionary leaps, in short, the origin of new species, which will necessarily imply a change of what we have called the structural code of the genotype. Putting it another way, by some means we have to justify the existence of the human genome.

    When a system evolves, it complicates and, at the same time, certain traits make up its structure, the functioning of many others depending on it. Eventually this structure of the genotype becomes ancient and there comes a time when it is necessary to change some elements of the structure in order to allow the simplification of complicated processes and increase the evolutionary potential of the species.

    For being about a new function, it cannot be associated with the condition of verification in the evolution of the species. Either it will have been tested by simulation or other condition of control will be joined for the case of error, such as incorporating this modification to a certain proportion of the descendants.

    The fast evolution of the species that will follow a structural change will produce traits related and dependent on the new functions, for example, the necessity of a certain protein. If, as a result of the combination of genes, a new being does not acquire this new function, it will not survive, given that the dependent traits will remain blocked in the phenotype.

    In this way, the distancing of the new species will begin which will be compatible with the initial species during a certain period but evolution will finish by making them incompatible for reproductive purposes and it will cause their complete separation and the origin of new species.

    The very rare diseases, one case out of every 10,000 or 100,000, could respond perfectly to this argument, since usually they are due to the lack of a protein in the phenotype or organism by two very archaic genes together. These genes are reminiscent of the past because all of the individuals with the new structure and those genes of the two parents have not been viable.


    "The responsible gene of a protein called growth factor 2, similar to the insulin (IGF2), is usually marked in people...

    The marked IGF2 from the mother normally is not active in the child, but when it loses that marking and is activated it produces a form of cancer in infants called Wilm’s tumor...

    This is a radical concept in genetics... Because until now, cancers caused by healthy genes had not been seen

    El País 26-04-1993. Nature

    Of course, as always, it can sound like natural selection because any mechanism that impedes the viability of a being could be considered making up a part of the natural selection, but it would be nothing more than abuse of the concept in its purest tautological form.

  • Complementary traits and the origin of the species

    To extend the field of possible improvements in the evolution of the species, conditions of effective development of the modified trait could be set up according to the existence or lack of other related traits.

    The balance of complementary traits is also related to coherence and could cause, in certain assumptions, an evolutionary leap implying the origin of species.

    When two traits are perfectly complementary, their balance is recommended given that the resulting potential will be greater. The previous figure shows the effect of the factor of complementarity on the potential of a particular characteristic in the evolution of the species. In theory, the resulting potential should be greater than the simple addition of the potential of the traits considered separately. In the graphic, an example is shown where it is assumed that the resulting potential is the product of the potential individuals.

    If we think about the complementarity of intelligence and memory, it could be assumed that each additional unit –a typical example can be human genome– of intelligence will increase the total potential not in a unit but rather in the quantity of the total memory.

    A familiar analogy for almost all of us is the trunk of a car: when going on a long trip and with many pieces of junk, one should pay special attention on how they are placed so that they all fit. Obviously, the greater ability we have and the bigger the trunk is, the more things that can be put inside.

    In assessing the effect for greater clarity, if the ability passes from 3 to 4 objects by unit of volume, and the volume of 4 to 6 units, we would see that the ability has increased in a unit, the volume in 2 units and the number of objects in 12 by the effect of complementarity.

    This effect is of extreme importance, since in the figure it is clearly shown how the maximum difference of potential of every trait isolated is found in the relationship 9 / 3 = 3 and, when we look at the global potential, the relationship is transformed to 81/9 = 9, it has been tripled.

    Complementarity of abilities in the phenotype
    Complementary traits

    We can imagine the enormous differences that can be produced in the potential associated with multifunctional concepts, as is precisely the case with the intelligence and the memory, and only with the introduction of another trait or function could it be passed from the individual relationship of 3 to the relationship for the global potential of 729 / 27 = 27.

    Now, we can imagine that three different ape species live in a relatively close habitat, one of them lives mainly in the trees, another on the ground and another in a zone with great abundance of food during a long period of time which makes it so that this species dedicates more time than usual to the contemplative life. If, at a certain moment, the three species genetically mix and the mix is produced through their more extremely gifted individuals, it is easy to imagine that the descendants could acquire traits very superior to their ancestors, and the subsequent mechanisms that will be triggered will end up separating the new species from the previous.

    The only problem for the baby of the new specie will be to find its missing link because it has never existed.