Museum of the science of future
Philosophy of evolution, history and life
The molecules in the structure of matter. Characteristics of the chemical bonds between atoms that form the molecules. The temperature and properties of the physics phases of normal matter.
Normal matter is directly detected by our senses and is formed by atoms and molecules. In the previous sections, we have seen the new atom theory in Global Mechanics, now we are going to try to explain the composition of molecules and their properties within the same perspective.
Global Mechanics allows us to visualize the atoms and molecules in the reticular structure of matter by showing elementary particles as loops of this structure, forces of attraction as gravity and electromagnetism, and, finally, forces of repulsion as negative gravity or electromagnetism.
We must remember the concept of temperature or movement of the atoms and molecules as having stationary or vibrating nature, which relaxes the electromagnetic tension between the atomic nucleus and its surroundings.
Molecules signify restrictions in individual movement of atoms, whether they are molecules of a pure element or molecules with atoms of various chemical elements. These restrictions are mostly the result of molecular bonds.
The main molecular bonds are:
The ionic bond comes about when the spatial configuration of the surrounding of an atom is altered by the globine twisting into a shape that does not end up becoming a complete loop yet keeps an electron from being created and, at the same time, forces the creation of an electron dependent on another atom.
Although the resulting ionic bond is the same, at first it does not seem very accurate to say that an atom gives an electron to another since the electron is formed in the points of tension of the gravito-magnetic field which produces a complete loop of globine in such a way that relaxes the tension.
Simple physics experiment
Imagine a sheet spread out on a horizontal plane and fixed in the middle. On each end, a person turns the sheet 90 degrees in the opposite direction, no loop will be formed on any of the sides, but if the horizontal part of the center turns 90 degrees in any direction, it will produce a loop or turn of 180 degrees on one side and the initial 90 degree turn on the other end will disappear.
It is also true that, due to the energy barrier from the stability of electrons, an atom can lose an electron to another atom in order to form an ionic bond. In any case, it is important to understand what electrons are and why they form where they form; that is, not only is the electron transferred but there is a change in the spatial location and orientation of the atoms.
The covalent bond is when two or more atoms share electrons in what is called a molecular orbital.
The rules put forth by Global Mechanics regarding gravito-magnetic equilibrium of the electron orbits in an atom should be applied to the set of forces brought about by the presence of more and, in this case, different atoms, resulting in orbits throughout the molecules.
At first, the covalent bond of molecules is quite a bit stronger than the ionic bond since the energy barrier of electron stability will help to keep the atoms together.
We must mention the page about Gravity in short distances in the section on Gravitational interaction. Electrons in a covalent bond have a bonding force between two atoms of a molecule and, at the same time, keep the atom from being able to come closer.
Simple physics experiment
Make a slip knot with two parallel strings. After separating both of them at one of the ends, verify that the knot cannot get nearer to the end without becoming undone.
We need to specify that the covalent bond between molecules contains a loop of the globine or electron but not a knot; however, in both cases the filaments of the reticular structure of matter are joined thereby impeding a proton or neutron from getting closer due to the reticular size that offers them their stability.
The mechanisms of stability in molecules are similar in their main characteristics to those of the electron configuration of the atom. Therefore, when an atom is more electronegative than the other in the covalent bond, a polar covalent bond is created. The ionic bond would begin in the limit of the polarity of the covalent bond because atoms will stop sharing electrons.
Electrons move as they do in covalent bonds in networks of tightly bonded atoms that are surrounded by electron clouds. This structure and the large mobility of the electrons are responsible for the characteristic properties of metals.
We have stated that molecules signify restrictions in the movement of atoms, but there also restrictions in the movement of molecules such as, for example, covalent bonds in networks, or the very same metallic bonds.
Bonds of atoms and molecules
The physics phases of matter, solid, liquid, and gas, represent the atomic and molecular structures as regards the individual movement of atoms and molecules and other characteristics, or properties, such as hardness, malleability, conductivity, solubility, etc.
Let's take a look at an attempt in specific renormalizable details of the effect of temperature on the three physics phases of matter:
Solid phase of matter
Atoms and molecules need to all move around simultaneously since the loops of the three-dimensional structure of matter do not let the molecules move individually, whether through network bonds, through three-dimensional structure of molecules, or because of other spatial adjustments of gravito-magnetic differences with sufficient force.
However, with the increase in temperature, the nucleus of the atoms acquires more energy and mass which increases the gravito-magnetic field and, as a result of the repulsive gravity in the short distances, the points of electromagnetic relaxation that include the orbits of electrons move away.
If this distancing cannot take place there will be an increase in the vibration of the nuclei and speed of the electrons.
Liquid phase of matter
But there will be a moment in which the energy that temperature and vibration represent will produce certain molecular mobility that will give way to the liquid phase.
Gas phase of matter
The movement of molecules is completely independent, and any increase in temperature has a direct relationship to kinetic energy, the elastic collisions between the molecules, and the pressure produced by the collisions with the walls that contain the volume of the gases.
In Wikipedia, you can find a lot of information and details about molecules, molecular bonds, and physics phases of matter; although all the forces of the atom and molecules will have virtual or mathematical nature.
The properties of the physics phases of each element or chemical compound are explained to a greater extent by the type of molecular bond, but there are several other variables and major exceptions. For example, there is a compound that goes from a solid to a liquid with an increase in temperature, and then it goes back to being a solid before becoming a liquid again, and then it finally becomes a gas.
* * *
When Einsoder finished the book,
he called Mª José to tell her how pleased he was.
Then, she said the following:
– It is very good.
I especially like the part about
the experiment with the sheet,
but do not forget that
some limits must sometimes be self-imposed,
Even if there aren't any! –
Thanks very much for your visit,
your comments, wikitos